Advertisement

ASGE guideline: colorectal cancer screening and surveillance

      Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the fourth most commonly diagnosed cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States.2 Each year, approximately 140,000 individuals are diagnosed with CRC and more than 50,000 will die from this malignancy.
      • Jemal A.
      • Murray T.
      • Ward E.
      • et al.
      Cancer statistics.
      The 5-year survival rate for early-stage cancers is greater than 90%, whereas the 5-year survival rate for those diagnosed with widespread cancer is less than 10%.
      • O'Connell J.B.
      • Maggard M.A.
      • Ko C.Y.
      Colon cancer survival rates with the new American Joint Committee on Cancer sixth edition staging.
      There is indirect evidence that most cancers develop from adenomatous polyps and that on average it takes 10 years for a <1 cm polyp to transform into invasive CRC.
      • Stryker S.J.
      • Wolff B.G.
      • Culp C.E.
      • et al.
      Natural history of untreated colonic polyps.
      • Morson B.C.
      The evolution of colorectal carcinoma.
      Given the finding that adenomatous polyps are precursors to cancer and that polyps and early cancers are usually asymptomatic, there is a strong rationale to support screening asymptomatic individuals for early cancer detection and prevention.
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • ASGE Standards of Practice Committee
        Colorectal cancer screening and surveillance.
        Gastrointest Endosc. 2000; 51: 777-782
        • Jemal A.
        • Murray T.
        • Ward E.
        • et al.
        Cancer statistics.
        CA Cancer J Clin. 2005; 55: 10-30
        • O'Connell J.B.
        • Maggard M.A.
        • Ko C.Y.
        Colon cancer survival rates with the new American Joint Committee on Cancer sixth edition staging.
        J Natl Cancer Inst. 2004; 96: 1420-1425
        • Stryker S.J.
        • Wolff B.G.
        • Culp C.E.
        • et al.
        Natural history of untreated colonic polyps.
        Gastroenterology. 1987; 93: 1009-1013
        • Morson B.C.
        The evolution of colorectal carcinoma.
        Clin Radiol. 1984; 35: 425-431
        • Winawer S.J.
        • Fletcher R.H.
        • Miller R.H.
        • et al.
        Colorectal cancer screening: clinical guidelines and rationale.
        Gastroenterology. 1997; 112: 594-642
        • Imperiale T.F.
        • Wagner D.R.
        • Lin C.Y.
        • et al.
        Results of screening colonoscopy among persons 40 to 49 years of age.
        N Engl J Med. 2002; 346: 1781-1785
        • Ransohoff D.F.
        • Sandler R.S.
        Screening for colorectal cancer.
        N Engl J Med. 2002; 346: 40-44
        • Winawer S.J.
        • Zauber A.G.
        • Ho M.N.
        • et al.
        Prevention of colorectal cancer by colonoscopic polypectomy: the National Polyp Study Workgroup.
        N Engl J Med. 1993; 329: 1977-1981
        • Citarda F.
        • Tomaselli G.
        • Capocaccia R.
        • et al.
        Efficacy in standard clinical practice of colonoscopic polypectomy in reducing colorectal cancer incidence.
        Gut. 2001; 48: 812-815
        • Thiis-Evensen E.
        • Hoff G.S.
        • Sauar J.
        • et al.
        Population-based surveillance by colonoscopy: effect on the incidence of colorectal cancer. Telemark Polyp Study I.
        Scand J Gastroenterol. 1999; 34: 414-420
        • Mandel J.S.
        • Bond J.H.
        • Church T.R.
        • et al.
        Reducing mortality from colorectal cancer by screening for fecal occult blood: Minnesota Colon Cancer Control Study.
        N Engl J Med. 1993; 328: 1365-1371
        • Kronborg O.
        • Fenger C.
        • Olsen J.
        • et al.
        Randomised study of screening for colorectal cancer with faecal-occult-blood test.
        Lancet. 1996; 348: 1467-1471
        • Hardcastle J.D.
        • Chamberlain J.O.
        • Robinson M.H.
        • et al.
        Randomised controlled trial of faecal-occult-blood screening for colorectal cancer.
        Lancet. 1996; 348: 1472-1477
        • Newcomb P.A.
        • Norfleet R.G.
        • Storer B.E.
        • et al.
        Screening sigmoidoscopy and colorectal cancer mortality.
        J Natl Cancer Inst. 1992; 84: 1572-1575
        • Selby J.V.
        • Friedman G.D.
        • Quisenberry C.P.
        • et al.
        A case-control study of screening sigmoidoscopy and mortality from colorectal cancer.
        N Engl J Med. 1992; 326: 653-657
        • Muller A.D.
        • Sonnenberg A.
        Protection by endoscopy against death from colorectal cancer: a case-control study among veterans.
        Arch Intern Med. 1995; 155: 1741-1748
        • Newcomb P.A.
        • Storer B.E.
        • Morimoto L.M.
        • et al.
        Long-term efficacy of sigmoidoscopy in the reduction of colorectal cancer incidence.
        J Natl Cancer Inst. 2003; 95: 622-625
        • Lieberman D.A.
        • Weiss D.G.
        • Bond J.H.
        • et al.
        Use of colonoscopy to screen symptomatic adults for colorectal cancer.
        N Engl J Med. 2000; 343: 162-168
        • Imperiale T.F.
        • Wagner D.R.
        • Lin C.Y.
        • et al.
        Risk of advanced proximal neoplasms in asymptomatic adults according to the distal colorectal findings.
        N Engl J Med. 2000; 343: 169-174
        • Levin T.R.
        • Palitz A.
        • Grossman S.
        • et al.
        Predicting advanced proximal colonic neoplasia with screening sigmoidoscopy.
        JAMA. 1999; 281: 1611-1617
        • Rex D.K.
        • Chak A.
        • Vasudeva R.
        • et al.
        Prospective determination of distal colon findings in average-risk patients with proximal colon cancer.
        Gastrointest Endosc. 1999; 49: 727-730
        • Kahi C.J.
        • Rex D.K.
        Screening and surveillance of colorectal cancer.
        Gastrointest Endosc Clin North Am. 2005; 15: 533-547
        • Gatto N.M.
        • Frucht H.
        • Sundararajan V.
        • et al.
        Risk of perforation after colonoscopy and sigmoidoscopy: a population-based study.
        J Natl Cancer Inst. 2003; 95: 230-236
        • Dominitz J.A.
        • Eisen G.M.
        • Baron T.H.
        • et al.
        Standards of Practice Committee, American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy: complications of colonoscopy.
        Gastrointest Endosc. 2003; 57: 441-444
        • Rex D.K.
        • Cutler C.S.
        • Lemmel G.T.
        • et al.
        Colonoscopic miss rates of adenomas determined by back-to-back colonoscopies.
        Gastroenterology. 1997; 112: 24-28
        • Pickhardt P.J.
        • Nugent P.A.
        • Mysliwiec P.A.
        • et al.
        Location of adenomas missed by optical colonoscopy.
        Ann Intern Med. 2004; 141: 352-359
        • Rex D.K.
        Colonoscopic withdrawal technique is associated with adenoma miss rates.
        Gastrointest Endosc. 2000; 51: 33-36
        • Sonnenberg A.
        • Delco F.
        • Inadomi J.M.
        Cost-effectiveness of colonoscopy in screening for colorectal cancer.
        Ann Intern Med. 2000; 133: 573-584
        • Frazier A.L.
        • Colditz G.A.
        • Fuchs C.S.
        • et al.
        Cost-effectiveness of screening for colorectal cancer in the general population.
        JAMA. 2000; 284: 1954-1961
        • Davila R.E.
        • Rajan E.
        • Adler D.
        • et al.
        ASGE guideline: the role of endoscopy in the diagnosis, staging, and management of colorectal cancer.
        Gastrointest Endosc. 2005; 61: 1-7
        • Rex D.
        • Johnson D.A.
        • Lieberman D.A.
        • et al.
        Colorectal cancer prevention 2000: screening recommendations of the American College of Gastroenterology.
        Am J Gastroenterol. 2000; 95: 868-877
        • Mandel J.S.
        • Church T.R.
        • Ederer F.
        • et al.
        Colorectal cancer mortality: effectiveness of biennial screening for fecal occult blood.
        J Natl Cancer Inst. 1999; 91: 434-437
        • Rozen P.
        • Knaani J.
        • Samuel Z.
        Eliminating the need for dietary restrictions when using a sensitive guaiac fecal occult blood test.
        Dig Dis Sci. 1999; 44: 756-760
        • Sinatra M.A.
        • St John D.J.
        • Young G.P.
        Interference of plant peroxidases with guaiac-based fecal occult blood tests is avoidable.
        Clin Chem. 1999; 45: 123-126
        • Lieberman D.A.
        Colon cancer screening: the dilemma of positive screening tests.
        Arch Intern Med. 1990; 150: 740-744
        • Allison J.E.
        • Tekawa I.S.
        • Ransom L.J.
        • et al.
        A comparison of fecal occult-blood tests for colorectal-cancer screening.
        N Engl J Med. 1996; 334: 155-159
        • Greenberg P.D.
        • Bertario L.
        • Gnauck R.
        • et al.
        A prospective multicenter evaluation of new fecal occult blood tests in patients undergoing colonoscopy.
        Am J Gastroenterol. 2000; 95: 1331-1338
        • Smith R.A.
        • von Eschenbach A.C.
        • Wender R.
        • et al.
        American Cancer Society guidelines for the early detection of cancer: update of early detection guidelines for prostate, colorectal, and endometrial cancers.
        CA Cancer J Clin. 2001; 51: 38-75
        • Winawer S.
        • Fletcher R.
        • Rex D.
        • et al.
        U.S. Multisociety Task Force on Colorectal Cancer, colorectal cancer screening and surveillance: clinical guidelines and rationale—update based on new evidence.
        Gastroenterology. 2003; 124: 544-560
        • Nadel M.R.
        • Shapiro J.A.
        • Klabunde C.N.
        • et al.
        A national survey of primary care physicians' methods for screening for fecal occult blood.
        Ann Intern Med. 2005; 142: 86-94
        • Collins J.F.
        • Lieberman D.A.
        • Durbin T.E.
        • et al.
        Accuracy of screening for fecal occult blood on a single stool sample obtained by digital rectal examination: a comparison with recommended sampling practice.
        Ann Intern Med. 2005; 142: 81-85
        • Atkin W.S.
        • Cuzick J.
        • Northover J.M.A.
        • et al.
        Prevention of colorectal cancer by once-only sigmoidoscopy.
        Lancet. 1993; 341: 736-740
        • Segnan N.
        • Senore C.
        • Andreoni B.
        • et al.
        SCORE2 Working Group—Italy.
        J Natl Cancer Inst. 2005; 97: 347-357
        • Lieberman D.A.
        • Weiss D.G.
        Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study Group 380. One-time screening for colorectal cancer with combined fecal occult-blood testing and examination of the distal colon.
        N Engl J Med. 2001; 345: 555-560
        • Schoenfeld P.
        • Cash B.
        • Flood A.
        • et al.
        Clonoscopic screening of average-risk women for colorectal neoplasia.
        N Engl J Med. 2005; 352: 2061-2068
        • Anderson J.C.
        • Alpern Z.
        • Messina C.R.
        • et al.
        Predictors of proximal neoplasia in patients without distal adenomatous pathology.
        Am J Gastroenterol. 2004; 99: 472-477
        • Pignone M.
        • Rich M.
        • Teutsch S.M.
        • et al.
        Screening for colorectal cancer in adults at average risk: a summary of the evidence for the U.S.
        Preventive Services Task Force. Ann Intern Med. 2002; 137: 132-141
        • Brint S.L.
        • DiPalma J.A.
        • Herrera J.L.
        Colorectal cancer screening: is one-year surveillance sigmoidoscopy necessary?.
        Am J Gastroenterol. 1993; 88: 2019-2021
        • Rex D.K.
        • Lehman G.A.
        • Ulbright T.M.
        • et al.
        The yield of a second screening flexible sigmoidoscopy in average-risk persons after one negative examination.
        Gastroenterology. 1994; 106: 593-595
        • Riff E.R.
        • Dehaan K.
        • Garewal G.S.
        The role of sigmoidoscopy in asymptomatic patients: results of three annual screening sigmoidoscopies, polypectomy, and subsequent surveillance colonoscopy in a primary-care setting.
        Cleve Clin J Med. 1990; 57: 131-136
        • Doria-Rose V.P.
        • Levin T.R.
        • Selby J.V.
        • et al.
        The incidence of colorectal cancer following a negative screening sigmoidoscopy: implications for screening interval.
        Gastroenterology. 2004; 127: 714-722
        • Berry D.P.
        • Clarke P.
        • Hardcastle J.D.
        • et al.
        Randomized trial of the addition of flexible sigmoidoscopy to faecal occult blood testing for colorectal neoplasia population screening.
        Br J Surg. 1997; 84: 1274-1276
        • Rockey D.C.
        • Paulson E.
        • Niedzwiecki D.
        • et al.
        Analysis of air contrast barium enema, computed tomographic colonography, and colonoscopy: prospective comparison.
        Lancet. 2005; 365: 305-311
        • Winawer S.J.
        • Stewart E.T.
        • Zauber A.G.
        • et al.
        A comparison of colonoscopy and double-contrast barium enema for surveillance after polypectomy: National Polyp Study Work Group.
        N Engl J Med. 2000; 342: 1766-1772
        • Rex D.
        • Rahmani E.
        • Hasemann J.
        • et al.
        Relative sensitivity of colonoscopy and barium enema for detection of colorectal cancer in clinical practice.
        Gastroenterology. 1997; 112: 17-23
        • Isenberg G.A.
        • Ginsberg G.G.
        • Barkun A.N.
        • et al.
        ASGE Technology Assessment Committee: virtual colonoscopy.
        Gastrointest Endosc. 2003; 57: 451-454
        • Cotton P.B.
        • Durkalski V.L.
        • Pineau B.C.
        • et al.
        Computed tomographic colonography (virtual colonoscopy): multicenter comparison with standard colonoscopy for detection of colorectal neoplasia.
        JAMA. 2004; 291: 1713-1719
        • Pickhardt P.J.
        • Choi J.R.
        • Hwang I.
        • et al.
        Computed tomographic virtual colonoscopy to screen for colorectal neoplasia in asymptomatic adults.
        N Engl J Med. 2003; 349: 2191-2200
        • Macari M.
        • Bini E.J.
        • Jacobs S.L.
        • et al.
        Colorectal polyps and cancers in asymptomatic average-risk patients: evaluation with CT colonography.
        Radiology. 2004; 230: 629-636
        • Pineau B.C.
        • Paskett E.D.
        • Chen G.J.
        • et al.
        Virtual colonoscopy using oral contrast compared with colonoscopy for the detection of patients with colorectal polyps.
        Gastroenterology. 2003; 125: 304-310
        • Fenlon H.M.
        • Nunes D.P.
        • Schroy III, P.C.
        • et al.
        A comparison of virtual and conventional colonoscopy for the detection of colorectal polyps.
        N Engl J Med. 1999; 341: 1496-1503
        • Svensson M.H.
        • Svensson E.
        • Lasson A.
        • et al.
        Patient acceptance of CT colonography and conventional colonoscopy: prospective comparative study in patients with or suspected of having colorectal disease.
        Radiology. 2002; 222: 337-345
        • Akerkar G.A.
        • Yee J.
        • Hung R.
        • et al.
        Patient experience and preferences toward colon cancer screening: a comparison of virtual colonoscopy and conventional colonoscopy.
        Gastrointest Endosc. 2001; 54: 310-315
      1. Virtual colonoscopy.
        Med Lett Drugs Ther. 2005; 47: 15-16
        • Yee J.
        • Kumar N.N.
        • Godara S.
        • et al.
        Extracolonic abnormalities discovered incidentally at CT colonography in a male population.
        Radiology. 2005; 236: 519-526
        • Sonnenberg A.
        • Delco F.
        • Bauerfeind P.
        Is virtual colonoscopy a cost-effective option to screen for colorectal cancer?.
        Am J Gastroenterol. 1999; 94: 2268-2274
        • Ladabaum U.
        • Song K.
        • Fendrick A.M.
        Colorectal neoplasia screening with virtual colonoscopy: when, at what cost, and with what national impact?.
        Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2004; 2: 554-563
        • Gallo T.M.
        • Galatola G.
        • Fracchia M.
        • et al.
        Computed tomography colonography in routine clinical practice.
        Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2003; 15: 1323-1331
        • Rex D.K.
        PRO: patients with polyps smaller than 1 cm on computed tomographic colonography should be offered colonoscopy and polypectomy.
        Am J Gastroenterol. 2005; 100: 1903-1905
        • Ransohoff D.F.
        CON: immediate colonoscopy is not necessary in patients who have polyps smaller than 1 cm on computed tomographic colonography.
        Am J Gastroenterol. 2005; 100: 1905-1907
        • Deenadayalu V.P.
        • Rex D.K.
        Fecal-based DNA assays: a new, noninvasive approach to colorectal cancer screening.
        Cleve Clin J Med. 2004; 71: 497-503
        • Ahlquist D.A.
        • Skoletsky J.E.
        • Boynton K.A.
        • et al.
        Colorectal cancer screening by detection of altered human DNA in stool: feasibility of a multitarget assay panel.
        Gastroenterology. 2000; 119: 1219-1227
        • Dong S.M.
        • Traverso G.
        • Johnson C.
        • et al.
        Detecting colorectal cancer in stool with the use of multiple genetic targets.
        J Natl Cancer Inst. 2001; 93: 858-865
        • Tagore K.S.
        • Lawson M.J.
        • Yucaitis J.A.
        • et al.
        Sensitivity and specificity of a stool DNA multitarget assay panel for the detection of advanced colorectal neoplasia.
        Clin Colorectal Cancer. 2003; 3: 47-53
        • Traverso G.
        • Shuber A.
        • Levin B.
        • et al.
        Detection of APC mutations in fecal DNA from patients with colorectal tumors.
        N Engl J Med. 2002; 346: 311-320
        • Imperiale T.F.
        • Ransohoff D.F.
        • Itzkowitz S.H.
        • et al.
        Colorectal Cancer Study Group: fecal DNA versus fecal occult blood for colorectal-cancer screening in an average-risk population.
        N Engl J Med. 2004; 351: 2704-2714
        • Giardiello F.M.
        • Brensinger J.D.
        • Luce M.C.
        • et al.
        Phenotypic expression of disease in families that have mutations in the 5 prime region of the adenomatous polyposis coli gene.
        Ann Intern Med. 1997; 126: 514-519
        • Soravia C.
        • Berk T.
        • Madlensky L.
        • et al.
        Genotype-phenotype correlations in attenuated adenomatous polyposis coli.
        Am J Hum Genet. 1998; 62: 1290-1301
        • Giardiello F.M.
        • Brensinger J.D.
        • Petersen G.M.
        AGA technical review on hereditary colorectal cancer and genetic testing.
        Gastroenterology. 2001; 121: 195-213
        • Giardiello F.M.
        • Brensinger J.D.
        • Petersen G.M.
        • et al.
        The use and interpretation of commercial APC gene testing for familial adenomatous polyposis.
        N Engl J Med. 1997; 336: 823-827
        • American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
        Colonoscopy in the screening and surveillance of individuals at increased risk for colorectal cancer.
        Gastrointest Endosc. 1998; 48: 676-678
        • Heiskanen I.
        • Luostarinen T.
        • Jarvinen H.J.
        Impact of screening examinations on survivial in familial adenomatous polyposis.
        Scand J Gastroenterol. 2000; 35: 1284-1287
        • Petersen G.M.
        Knowledge of the adenomatous polyposis coli gene and its clinical application.
        Ann Intern Med. 1994; 26: 205-208
        • Hirota W.K.
        • Zuckerman M.J.
        • Adler D.
        • et al.
        ASGE guideline: the role of endoscopy in the surveillance of premalignant conditions of the upper GI tract.
        Gastrointest Endosc. 2006; 63: 570-580
        • Lynch H.T.
        • de le Chapelle A.
        Heredetary colorectal cancer.
        N Engl J Med. 2003; 348: 919-932
        • Young Y.
        • Terdiman J.P.
        Endoscopic management of familial colonic neoplasia.
        Gastrointest Endosc Clin North Am. 2005; 5: 549-580
        • Dietmaier W.
        • Wallinger S.
        • Bocker T.
        • et al.
        Diagnostic microsatellite instability: definition and correlation with mismatch repair protein expression.
        Cancer Res. 1997; 57: 4749-4756
        • Thibodeau S.N.
        • French A.J.
        • Roche P.C.
        • et al.
        Altered expression of hMSH2 and hMLH1 in tumors with microsatellite instability and genetic alterations in mismatch repair genes.
        Cancer Res. 1996; 56: 4836-4840
        • Terdiman J.P.
        • Gum Jr., J.R.
        • Conrad P.G.
        • et al.
        Efficient detection of hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer gene carrier by screening for tumor microsatellite instability before germline genetic testing.
        Gastroenterology. 2001; 120: 21-30
        • Christensen M.
        • Katballe N.
        • Wikman F.
        • et al.
        Antibody-based screening for hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal carcinoma compared with microsatellite analysis and sequencing.
        Cancer. 2002; 95: 2422-2430
        • Pinol V.
        • Castells A.
        • Andreu M.
        • et al.
        Gastrointestinal Oncology Group of the Spanish Gastroenterological Association: accuracy of revised Bethesda guidelines, microsatellite instability, and immunohistochemistry for the identification of patients with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer.
        JAMA. 2005; 293: 1986-1994
        • Halbert C.H.
        • Lynch H.
        • Lynch J.
        • et al.
        Colon cancer screening practices following genetic testing for hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer (HNPCC) mutations.
        Arch Intern Med. 2004; 164: 1881-1887
        • Johns L.E.
        • Houlston R.S.
        A systematic review and meta-analysis of familial colorectal cancer risk.
        Am J Gastroenterol. 2001; 96: 2992-3003
        • Eisen G.M.
        • Weinberg D.S.
        Narrative review: screening for colorectal cancer in patients with a first-degree relative with colonic neoplasia.
        Ann Intern Med. 2005; 143: 190-198
        • Eaden J.A.
        • Abrams K.R.
        • Mayberry J.F.
        The risk of colorectal cancer in ulcerative colitis: a meta analysis.
        Gut. 2001; 48: 526-535
        • Rutter M.
        • Saunders B.
        • Wilkinson K.
        • et al.
        Severity of inflammation is a risk factor of colorectal neoplasia in ulcerative colitis.
        Gastroenterology. 2004; 126: 451-459
        • Prior P.
        • Gyde S.N.
        • Macartney J.C.
        • et al.
        Cancer morbidity in ulcerative colitis.
        Gut. 1982; 23: 490-497
        • Heuschen U.A.
        • Hinz U.
        • Allemeyer E.H.
        • et al.
        Backwash ileitis is strongly associated with colorectal carcinoma in ulcerative colitis.
        Gastroenterology. 2001; 120: 841-847
        • Kornfeld D.
        • Ekbom A.
        • Ihre T.
        Is there an excess risk for colorectal cancer in patients with ulcerative colitis and concomitant primary sclerosing cholangitis? A population based study.
        Gut. 1997; 41: 522-525
        • Bernstein C.N.
        • Blanchard J.F.
        • Kliewer E.
        • et al.
        Cancer risk in patients with inflammatory bowel disease: a population-based study.
        Cancer. 2001; 91: 854-862
        • Friedman S.
        • Rubin P.H.
        • Bodian C.
        • et al.
        Screening and surveillance colonoscopy in chronic Crohn's colitis.
        Gastroenterology. 2001; 120: 820-826
        • Itzkowitz S.H.
        • Present D.H.
        Crohn's and Colitis Foundation of America Colon Cancer in IBD Study Group, consensus conference: colorectal cancer screening and surveillance in inflammatory bowel disease.
        Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2005; 11: 314-321
        • Leighton J.A.
        • Shen B.
        • Baron T.H.
        • et al.
        ASGE guideline: endoscopy in the diagnosis and treatment of inflammatory bowel disease.
        Gastrointest Endosc. 2006; 63: 558-565
        • Choi P.M.
        • Nugent F.W.
        • Schoetz D.J.J.
        • et al.
        Colonoscopic surveillance reduces mortality from colorectal cancer in ulcerative colitis.
        Gastroenterology. 1993; 105: 418-424
        • Eaden J.A.
        • Mayberry J.F.
        British Society for Gastroenterology, Association of Coloproctology for Great Britan and Ireland: guidelines for screening and surveillance of asymptomatic colorectal cancer in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.
        Gut. 2002; 51: v10-v12
        • Rutter M.D.
        • Saunders B.P.
        • Wilkinson K.H.
        • et al.
        Most dysplasia in ulcerative colitis is visible at colonoscopy.
        Gastrointest Endosc. 2004; 60: 334-339
        • Langevin J.M.
        • Nivatvongs S.
        The true incidence of synchronous cancer of the large bowel: a prospective study.
        Am J Surg. 1984; 147: 330-333
        • Passman M.A.
        • Pommier R.F.
        • Vetto J.T.
        Synchronous colon primaries have the same prognosis as solitary colon cancers.
        Dis Colon Rectum. 1996; 39: 329-334
        • Makela J.T.
        • Laitinen S.O.
        • Kairaluoma M.I.
        Five-year follow-up after radical surgery for colorectal cancer; results of a prospective randomized trial.
        Arch Surg. 1995; 130: 1062-1067
        • Ohlsson B.
        • Breland U.
        • Ekberg H.
        • et al.
        Follow-up after curative surgery for colorectal carcinoma: randomized comparison with no follow-up.
        Dis Colon Rectum. 1995; 38: 619-626
        • Schoemaker D.
        • Black R.
        • Giles L.
        • et al.
        Yearly colonoscopy, liver CT, and chest radiography do not influence 5-year survival of colorectal cancer patients.
        Gastroenterology. 1998; 114: 7-14
        • Benson A.B.
        • Desch C.E.
        • Flynn P.J.
        • et al.
        2000 update of American Society of Clinical Oncology colorectal cancer surveillance guidelines.
        J Clin Oncol. 2000; 18: 3586-3588
        • Anthony T.
        • Simmang C.
        • Hyman N.
        • et al.
        The Standards Practice Task Force, the American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons: practice parameters for the surveillance and follow-up of patients with colon and rectal cancer.
        Dis Colon Rectum. 2004; 47: 807-817
        • Green R.J.
        • Metlay J.P.
        • Propert K.
        • et al.
        Surveillance for second primary colorectal cancer after adjuvant chemotherapy: an analysis of Intergroup 0089.
        Ann Intern Med. 2002; 136: 262-269
        • Barillari P.
        • Ramacciato G.
        • Manetti G.
        • et al.
        Surveillance of colorectal cancer: effectiveness of early detection of intraluminal recurrences on prognosis and survival of patients treated for cure.
        Dis Colon Rectum. 1996; 39: 388-393
        • Brady P.G.
        • Straker R.J.
        • Goldschmid S.
        Surveillance colonoscopy after resection for colon carcinoma.
        South Med J. 1990; 83: 765-768
        • Greene F.L.
        • Page D.L.
        • Fleming I.D.
        • et al.
        AJCC cancer staging hadbook.
        6th ed. Lippincott Raven, Philadelphia2002
        • Kapiteijn E.
        • Marijnen C.A.
        • Nagtegaal I.D.
        • et al.
        Preoperative radiotherapy combined with total mesorectal excision of resectable rectal cancer.
        N Engl J Med. 2001; 345: 638-646
        • Read T.
        • Read J.
        • Butterly L.
        Importance of adenomas 5 mm or less in diameter that are detected by sigmoidoscopy.
        N Engl J Med. 1997; 336: 8-12
        • Atkin W.S.
        • Morson B.C.
        • Cuzick J.
        Long-term risk of colorectal cancer after excision of rectosigmoid adenomas.
        N Engl J Med. 1992; 326: 658-662
        • Lin O.S.
        • Gerson L.B.
        • Soon M.S.
        • et al.
        Risk of proximal colon neoplasia with distal hyperplastic polyps: a meta-analysis.
        Arch Intern Med. 2005; 165: 382-390
        • Hyman N.H.
        • Anderson P.
        • Blasyk H.
        Hyperplastic polyposis and the risk of colorectal cancer.
        Dis Colon Rectum. 2004; 47: 2101-2104
        • Deenadayalu V.P.
        • Rex D.K.
        Colon polyp retrieval after cold snaring.
        Gastrointest Endosc. 2005; 62: 253-256
        • Kim E.C.
        • Lance P.
        Colorectal polyps and their relationship to cancer.
        Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 1997; 26: 1-17
        • Gillespie P.E.
        • Chambers T.J.
        • Chan K.W.
        • et al.
        Colonic adenomas—a colonoscopy survey.
        Gut. 1979; 20: 240-245
        • Seitz U.
        • Bohnacker S.
        • Seewald S.
        • et al.
        Long-term results of endoscopic removal of large colorectal adenomas.
        Endoscopy. 2003; 35: S41-S44
        • Church J.M.
        Clinical significance of small colorectal polyps.
        Dis Colon Rectum. 2004; 47: 481-485
        • Rex D.K.
        • Ulbright T.M.
        • Cummings O.W.
        Coming to terms with pathologists over colon polyps with cancer or high-grade dysplasia.
        J Clin Gastroenterol. 2005; 39: 1-3

      Linked Article

      • Erratum
        Gastrointestinal EndoscopyVol. 63Issue 6
        • Preview
          In the article ASGE guideline: colorectal cancer screening and surveillance (Gastrointest Endosc 2006;63:546-57), the author list is incomplete. The complete author list is as follows:
        • Full-Text
        • PDF