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A novel endoscopic prototype device for gastric full-thickness biopsy for the histopathologic diagnosis of GI neuromuscular pathology: in vivo porcine long-term survival study (with videos)

Published:November 29, 2012DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gie.2012.09.013

      Background

      Many GI motility disorders are associated with underlying GI neuromuscular pathology, which requires full-thickness biopsies (FTB) for histopathologic diagnosis. Currently, none of the endoscopy-based attempts to obtain FTB specimens have proven suitable for routine use. This study evaluated a novel endoscopic prototype device (ED) for this purpose.

      Objective

      To determine (1) the ability of the ED to obtain suitable FTB specimens, (2) associated complications, (3) feasibility of reliable defect closure, and (4) ability to evaluate intramural neuromuscular components.

      Design

      Preclinical proof-of-concept study in 30 pigs.

      Setting

      Animal laboratory.

      Intervention

      Gastric FTB specimens were obtained with a circular cutter and anchor. The defect was closed by over-the-scope clips/T-tags. The resection site was inspected via laparoscopy. After 2 to 4 weeks, necropsy was carried out to evaluate late complications.

      Main Outcome Measurements

      Feasibility, safety, and closure rate of the procedure. FTB specimens were assessed by histology/immunohistochemistry to visualize enteric neuromusculature.

      Results

      A total of 29 of 30 procedures were successfully performed; one hemorrhage required endoscopic treatment. A total of 29 of 30 FTB specimens (mean diameter 9.1 mm) were retrieved in 7.1 ± 0.4 minutes (range 3.0-12.5 minutes), displaying optimal tissue quality. Defect closure took 10.8 ± 0.9 minutes (range 7.2-32 minutes). Laparoscopy did not reveal damage to adjacent organs. Necropsy showed well-healed scars at the resection site and no complications, peritonitis, or abscess formation. Histology showed smooth muscle layers and submucosal and myenteric ganglia.

      Limitations

      Survival animal pilotstudy, no patients.

      Conclusion

      The novel ED enabled safe harvesting of well-preserved FTB specimens. Defect closure proved to be reliable. All neuromuscular structures relevant for histopathologic evaluation of GI neuromuscular pathology were demonstrated. Further studies are needed to verify the efficacy of this prototype device in the entire gut and in humans.

      Abbreviations:

      ED (endoscopic prototype device), FTB (full-thickness biopsy), IBS (irritable bowel syndrome), NOTES (natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery), TRIS (tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane)
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