Review article| Volume 81, ISSUE 5, P1130-1140.e9, May 2015

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Patient-derived measures of GI endoscopy: a meta-narrative review of the literature

      Background and Aims

      GI endoscopy (GIE) is widely performed, with 1 in 3 people requiring an endoscopic procedure at some point. Patient experience of medical procedures is important, but, to date, experience measures of GIE are derived from clinician opinion rather than from patients themselves. In this meta-narrative review, the literature on methods of assessing patient experience in GIE is reported.


      ScienceDirect, MEDLINE, Web of Knowledge, Web of Science, CINAHL, and PsycINFO were searched to November 2013 using meta-narrative standards. Search terms included those related to endoscopic procedures, combined with those related to patient experience.


      A total of 3688 abstracts were identified and reviewed for relevance. A total of 3549 were excluded, leaving 139 for full-text review. We subsequently included 48 articles. Three sub-groups of studies were identified—those developing original measures of endoscopy-specific patient experience (27 articles), those modifying existing measures (10 articles), and those testing existing measures for reliability or validity (11 articles). Most measures focused on pain, discomfort, anxiety, and embarrassment. Three studies explored wider aspects of experience, including preparation, unit organization, and endoscopist preference. Likert scales, visual analog scale scores, and questionnaires were used most commonly. The Global Rating Scale was validated for use in 2 studies, confirming that those domains cover all aspects of endoscopy experience. Other measures were modified to assess endoscopic experience, such as the modified Group Health Association of America survey (mGHAA-9) (modified by 5 studies).


      No patient-derived and validated endoscopy-specific experience measures were found. Patient-derived and validated experience measures should be developed and used to model optimal healthcare delivery.


      GIE (gastrointestinal endoscopy), GRS (Global Rating Scale), mGHAA-9 (modified Group Health Association of America), NHS (National Health Service), PREM (patient reported experience measure), PROM (patient reported outcome measure)
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