Advertisement

Diversity in gastroenterology in the United States: Where are we now? Where should we go?

Published:January 22, 2016DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gie.2015.12.001
      The term diversity has many definitions that have continued to evolve and expand over time. At its core, diversity is “a concept that encompasses acceptance and respect. It means the understanding that each individual is unique, and recognizing individual differences.”

      Santa Fe College Office of Diversity. Available at: http://www.sfcollege.edu/diversity. Accessed August 30, 2014.

      Nowhere is diversity more apparent today than in our changing healthcare system. Given improved access to healthcare provided through healthcare reform and the rapidly changing demographics of the U.S. population, it is expected that the U.S. healthcare system will continue to become more diverse in the future. However, the U.S. healthcare workforce does not mirror the population that it serves, a disparity that is most glaring in medical specialties including gastroenterology. It is well understood that promoting diversity among the healthcare workforce is essential to improving the quality of care for all patients.
      • Nivet M.A.
      Commentary: diversity and inclusion in the 21st century: bridging the moral and excellence imperatives.
      For example, by developing a more diverse workforce we can enhance the healthcare we provide to our changing population in a number of important areas: (1) increasing care in underrepresented communities, (2) improving familiarity with the cultural customs, values, and behaviors of our patients, (3) promoting research in healthcare disparities, and (4) cultivating mentors for future healthcare providers.
      • Palepu A.
      • Carr P.L.
      • Friedman R.H.
      • et al.
      Specialty choices, compensation, and career satisfaction of underrepresented minority faculty in academic medicine.

      Abbreviations:

      AGAI (American Gastroenterological Association Institute), ASGE (American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy), DDW (Digestive Disease Week), HCV (hepatitis C virus), LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transsexual)
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

      1. Santa Fe College Office of Diversity. Available at: http://www.sfcollege.edu/diversity. Accessed August 30, 2014.

        • Nivet M.A.
        Commentary: diversity and inclusion in the 21st century: bridging the moral and excellence imperatives.
        Acad Med. 2012; 87: 1458-1460
        • Palepu A.
        • Carr P.L.
        • Friedman R.H.
        • et al.
        Specialty choices, compensation, and career satisfaction of underrepresented minority faculty in academic medicine.
        Acad Med. 2000; 75: 157-160
      2. The size, place of birth and geographic distribution of the foreign-born population in the United States: 1960 to 2010. Available at: http://www.census.gov/population/foreign/files/WorkingPaper96.pdf. Accessed August 30, 2014.

      3. Missing persons: minorities in the health professions, 2004. The Sullivan Commission. www.aacn.nche.edu. Accessed August 30, 2014.

        • Cooper-Patrick L.
        • Gallo J.J.
        • Gonzales J.J.
        • et al.
        Race, gender, and partnership in the patient-physician relationship.
        JAMA. 1999; 282: 583-589
        • Komaromy M.
        • Grumbach K.
        • Drake M.
        • et al.
        The role of black and Hispanic physicians in providing health care for underserved populations.
        N Engl J Med. 1996; 334: 1305-1310
      4. Diverse communities, common concerns: assessing health care quality for minority americans. Available at: http://www.commonwealthfund.org/∼/media/files/publications/fund-report/2002/mar/diverse-communities–common-concerns–assessing-health-care-quality-for-minority-americans/collins_diversecommun_523-pdf.pdf. Accessed May 1, 2015.

      5. Health care experiences survey brief. Pew Hispanic Center/The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2004. http://www.pewhispanic.org/files/2011/10/14.pdf. Accessed August 30, 2014.

        • Rivera-Nieves J.
        • Abreu M.T.
        A call for investment in education of US minorities in the 21(st) century.
        Gastroenterology. 2013; 144: 863-867
        • Saha S.
        • Guiton G.
        • Wimmers P.F.
        • et al.
        Student body racial and ethnic composition and diversity-related outcomes in US medical schools.
        JAMA. 2008; 300: 1135-1145
        • Cantor J.C.
        • Miles E.L.
        • Baker L.C.
        • et al.
        Physician service to the underserved: implications for affirmative action in medical education.
        Inquiry. 1996; 33: 167-180
      6. Minorities in medical education: facts & figures 2005. Association of American Medical Colleges. Available at: http://mhrc.dopm.uab.edu/resources_new/MinoritiesinMedicalEducationFactsFigures2005.pdf. Accessed August 30, 2014.

        • Moy E.
        • Bartman B.A.
        Physician race and care of minority and medically indigent patients.
        JAMA. 1995; 273: 1515-1520
        • Rabinowitz H.K.
        • Diamond J.J.
        • Veloski J.J.
        • et al.
        The impact of multiple predictors on generalist physicians' care of underserved populations.
        Am J Public Health. 2000; 90: 1225-1228
        • Saha S.
        • Arbelaez J.J.
        • Cooper L.A.
        Patient-physician relationships and racial disparities in the quality of health care.
        Am J Public Health. 2003; 93: 1713-1719
        • Gross R.
        • McNeill R.
        • Davis P.
        • et al.
        The association of gender concordance and primary care physicians' perceptions of their patients.
        Women Health. 2008; 48: 123-144
        • Pickett-Blakely O.
        • Bleich S.N.
        • Cooper L.A.
        Patient-physician gender concordance and weight-related counseling of obese patients.
        Am J Prev Med. 2011; 40: 616-619
        • Schmittdiel J.A.
        • Traylor A.
        • Uratsu C.S.
        • et al.
        The association of patient-physician gender concordance with cardiovascular disease risk factor control and treatment in diabetes.
        J Women’s Health (Larchmt). 2009; 18: 2065-2070
      7. National Healthcare Disparities Report, 2013. Available at: www.ahrq.gov/research/findings/nhqrdr/index.html. Accessed August 30, 2014.

        • Christie J.
        • Itzkowitz S.
        • Lihau-Nkanza I.
        • et al.
        A randomized controlled trial using patient navigation to increase colonoscopy screening among low-income minorities.
        J Natl Med Assoc. 2008; 100: 278-284
        • Marquez E.
        • Gupta S.
        • Cryer B.
        Meeting the gastrointestinal needs of a culturally and linguistically diverse patient population.
        Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2011; 9: 106-109
        • Saab S.
        • Jackson C.
        • Nieto J.
        • et al.
        Hepatitis C in African Americans.
        Am J Gastroenterol. 2014; 109 (quiz 1575, 1585): 1576-1584
      8. Colorectal cancer screening. Available at: http://www.asge.org/press/press.aspx?id=552. Accessed May 1, 2015.

        • Rim S.H.
        • Seeff L.
        • Ahmed F.
        • et al.
        Colorectal cancer incidence in the United States, 1999-2004: an updated analysis of data from the National Program of Cancer Registries and the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program.
        Cancer. 2009; 115: 1967-1976
        • Wang A.
        • Shaukat A.
        • Acosta R.D.
        • et al.
        • ASGE Standards of Practice committee
        Race and ethnicity considerations in GI endoscopy.
        Gastrointest Endosc. 2015; 82: 593-599
      9. 2012 physician specialty data book. Available at: https://members.aamc.org/eweb/upload/2012PhysicianSpecialtyDataBook.pdf. Accessed February 2, 2015.

        • Moll J.
        • Krieger P.
        • Moreno-Walton L.
        • et al.
        The prevalence of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender health education and training in emergency medicine residency programs: What do we know?.
        Acad Emerg Med. 2014; 21: 608-611
        • Obedin-Maliver J.
        • Goldsmith E.S.
        • Stewart L.
        • et al.
        Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender-related content in undergraduate medical education.
        JAMA. 2011; 306: 971-977