Background and Aims
Abbreviations:AER (automated endoscope reprocessor), DLE (duodenoscope and linear echoendoscope), FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration), HLD (high-level disinfection)
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- New Delhi metallo-betalactamase-producing carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli associated with exposure to duodenoscopes.JAMA. 2014; 312: 1447-1455
- Transmission of infection by flexible gastrointestinal endoscopy and bronchoscopy.Clin Microbiol Rev. 2013; 26: 231-254
- Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography-associated AmpC Escherichia coli outbreak.Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2015; 36: 634-642
Division of Industry and Consumer Education, U.S. FDA. Design of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) duodenoscopes may impede effective cleaning: FDA safety communication. Available at: https://wayback.archive-it.org/7993/20170723124406/https://www.fda.gov/downloads/AdvisoryCommittees/CommitteesMeetingMaterials/MedicalDevices/MedicalDevicesAdvisoryCommittee/Gastroenterology-UrologyDevicesPanel/UCM445596.pdf. Accessed September 13, 2017.
Center for Devices and Radiological Health, U.S. FDA. Meeting of the Gastroenterology and Urology Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory Committee: effective reprocessing of endoscopes used in endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancratography (ERCP) procedures, May 14-15, 2015. Available at: https://wayback.archive-it.org/7993/20170113091323/http://www.fda.gov/downloads/AdvisoryCommittees/CommitteesMeetingMaterials/MedicalDevices/MedicalDevicesAdvisoryCommittee/Gastroenterology-UrologyDevicesPanel/UCM445592.pdf. Accessed September 13, 2017.
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- Surveillance of guideline practices for duodenoscope and linear echoendoscope reprocessing in a large healthcare system.Gastrointest Endosc. 2016; 84: 392-399
- A quarantine process for the resolution of duodenoscope-associated transmission of multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli.Gastrointest Endosc. 2015; 82: 477-483
- Outbreaks of carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae infections associated with duodenoscopes: What can we do to prevent infections?.Am J Infect Control. 2016; 44: e47-e51
U.S. FDA. Supplemental measures to enhance duodenoscope reprocessing: FDA Safety Communication 2015. Available at: https://wayback.archive-it.org/7993/20170111065959/http://www.fda.gov/MedicalDevices/Safety/AlertsandNotices/ucm454766.htm. Accessed September 13, 2017.
- Duodenoscope reprocessing: risk and options coming into view.Gastrointest Endosc. 2015; 82: 484-487
- Echoing concerns related to endoscope reprocessing.Gastrointest Endosc. 2017; 85: 398-400
- Multisociety guideline on reprocessing flexible GI endoscopes: 2016 update.Gastrointest Endosc. 2017; 85: 282-294
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Interim protocol for healthcare facilities regarding surveillance for bacterial contamination of duodenoscopes after reprocessing. Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/hai/organisms/cre/cre-duodenoscope-surveillance-protocol.html. Accessed September 13, 2017.
- Risk of infection transmission in curvilinear array echoendoscopes: results of a prospective reprocessing and culture registry.Gastrointest Endosc. 2017; 85: 390-397
- A novel polytetrafluoroethylene-channel model, which simulates low levels of culturable bacteria in buildup biofilm after repeated endoscope reprocessing.Gastrointest Endosc. 2017; 86: 442-451
- Cost utility of competing strategies to prevent endoscopic transmission of carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae.Am J Gastroenterol. 2015; 110: 1666-1674
- Comparison of two culture methods for use in assessing microbial contamination of duodenoscopes.J Clin Microbiol. 2016; 54: 312-316
Department of Health and Human Services (2018). Duodenoscope surveillance sampling and culturing: reducing the risks of infection. Available at at: https://www.fda.gov/downloads/MedicalDevices/ProductsandMedicalProcedures/ReprocessingofReusableMedicalDevices/UCM597949.pdf. Accessed March 14, 2018.
- Adequacy of duodenoscope reprocessing methods as reported by infectious disease physicians.Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2016; 37: 226-228
- Evaluation of endoscope cleanliness after reprocessing: a clinical-use study.Central Service. 2013; 1: 22-27
- The adenosine triphosphate test is a rapid and reliable audit tool to assess manual cleaning adequacy of flexible endoscope channels.Am J Infect Control. 2013; 41: 249-253
Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation. Safe handling and biological decontamination of medical devices in health care facilities and in nonclinical settings. AN SI/AA MI ST35: 2003. Available at: http://www.aami.org/. Accessed September 1, 2017.
Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation. A compendium of processes, materials, test methods, and acceptance criteria for cleaning reusable medical devices. AAMI TIR 30: 2003. Available at: http://www.aami.org/. Accessed September 1, 2017.
DISCLOSURE: All authors disclosed no financial relationships relevant to this publication.
See CME section; p. 397.