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Technical feasibility of endoscopic submucosal dissection for local failure after chemoradiotherapy or radiotherapy for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

      Background and Aims

      Salvage endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) after chemoradiotherapy can be technically difficult as a result of radiation-induced fibrosis. We aimed to evaluate the technical feasibility of ESD for local failure after chemoradiotherapy for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and for other primary lesions within the irradiation field.

      Methods

      Consecutive patients treated with ESD for superficial ESCC between December 2009 and May 2017 were investigated retrospectively and stratified into group A (33 patients, 35 lesions; local failure at the primary site after chemoradiotherapy), group B (25 patients, 34 lesions; second primary lesions within the irradiation field), and group C (550 patients, 596 lesions; radiotherapy-naïve superficial ESCC). We evaluated procedural success rate, en bloc resection rate, 1-year local relapse-free survival (LRFS) rate, procedure time, and incidence of major adverse events.

      Results

      The rates of procedural success and en bloc resection, respectively, were significantly lower in group A (89%, 86%) than in groups B (100%, 100%) and C (100%, 98%). The 1-year LRFS rates were 86%, 100%, and 99% in groups A, B, and C, respectively, and significantly lower in group A than in group C. Serious adverse events including perforation were not observed in groups A and B; perforation occurred only in group C (2.8%).

      Conclusions

      ESD is technically feasible in patients with local failure, especially as initial salvage treatment and as treatment for second primary lesions within the irradiation field.

      Abbreviations:

      CT (computed tomography), CRT (chemoradiotherapy), DSS (disease-specific survival), ESCC (esophageal squamous cell carcinoma), ESD (endoscopic submucosal dissection), LRFS (local relapse-free survival), OS (overall survival), PDT (photodynamic therapy), RT (radiotherapy)
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