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Different risk factors between early and late cancer recurrences in patients without additional surgery after noncurative endoscopic submucosal dissection for early gastric cancer

Published:November 19, 2018DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gie.2018.11.015

      Background and Aims

      Cancer recurrence is observed in some patients without additional radical surgery after endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) that does not fulfill the curability criteria for early gastric cancer (EGC), categorized as “noncurative resection” or “curability C-2” in the guidelines. However, time to cancer recurrence is different in such patients. Thus, we aimed to identify the risk factors of early and late cancer recurrences in these patients.

      Methods

      Between 2000 and 2011, this multicenter study analyzed 905 patients who were followed up without additional radical surgery after ESD for EGC categorized as curability C-2. We evaluated the risk factors for early and late cancer recurrences, separately, after ESD. The cut-off value was defined at 2 years.

      Results

      Time to cancer recurrence in the enrolled patients showed a bimodal pattern, and the 5-year cancer recurrence rate was 3.2%. Multivariate Cox analyses revealed that lymphatic invasion (hazard ratio [HR], 8.56; P = .003) was the sole independent risk factor for early cancer recurrence. Regarding late cancer recurrence, vascular invasion (HR, 4.50; P = .039) was an independent risk factor, and lymphatic invasion tended to be a risk factor (HR, 3.63; P = .069).

      Conclusions

      This multicenter study with a large cohort demonstrated that lymphatic invasion is mainly associated with early cancer recurrence; however, vascular invasion was a risk factor only for late recurrence in patients without additional treatment after ESD for EGC categorized as curability C-2. This finding may contribute to decision making for treatment strategies after ESD, especially for patients with a relatively short life expectancy.

      Abbreviations:

      CI (confidence interval), EAST (Establishment of Accommodation of Early Stomach Cancer Treatment), EGC (early gastric cancer), HR (hazard ratio), IQR (interquartile range), LNM (lymph node metastasis), SM2 (tumor invasion into the submucosa ≥500 μm from the muscularis mucosa), VM (vertical margin)
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