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Endoscopic full-thickness resection for early colorectal cancer

Published:January 14, 2019DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gie.2018.12.025

      Background and Aims

      Current international guidelines recommend endoscopic resection for T1 colorectal cancer (CRC) with low-risk histology features and oncologic resection for those at high risk of lymphatic metastasis. Exact risk stratification is therefore crucial to avoid under-treatment as well as over-treatment. Endoscopic full-thickness resection (EFTR) has shown to be effective for treatment of non-lifting benign lesions. In this multicenter, retrospective study we aimed to evaluate efficacy, safety, and clinical value of EFTR for early CRC.

      Methods

      Records of 1234 patients undergoing EFTR for various indications at 96 centers were screened for eligibility. A total of 156 patients with histologic evidence of adenocarcinoma were identified. This cohort included 64 cases undergoing EFTR after incomplete resection of a malignant polyp (group 1) and 92 non-lifting lesions (group 2). Endpoints of the study were: technical success, R0-resection, adverse events, and successful discrimination of high-risk versus low-risk tumors.

      Results

      Technical success was achieved in 144 out of 156 (92.3%). Mean procedural time was 42 minutes. R0 resection was achieved in 112 of 156 (71.8%). Subgroup analysis showed a R0 resection rate of 87.5% in Group 1 and 60.9% in Group 2 (P < .001). Severe procedure-related adverse events were recorded in 3.9% of patients. Discrimination between high-risk versus low-risk tumor was successful in 155 of 156 cases (99.3%). In Group 1, 84.1% were identified as low-risk lesions, whereas 16.3% in group 2 had low-risk features. In total, 53 patients (34%) underwent oncologic resection due to high-risk features whereas 98 patients (62%) were followed endoscopically.

      Conclusions

      In early colorectal cancer, EFTR is technically feasible and safe. It allows exact histological risk stratification and can avoid surgery for low-risk lesions. Prospective studies are required to further define indications for EFTR in malignant colorectal lesions and to evaluate long-term outcome.

      Graphical abstract

      Abbreviations:

      CRC (colorectal cancer), EFTR (endoscopic full-thickness resection), ESD (endoscopic submucosal dissection), FTRD (full-thickness resection device), R0 (microscopically complete resection), T1 (Tumor stage according to TNM classification)
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