Nonvariceal upper GI hemorrhage after percutaneous coronary intervention for acute myocardial infarction: a national analysis over 11 months

Published:February 01, 2020DOI:

      Background and Aims

      Nonvariceal upper GI hemorrhage (NVUGIH) is a feared adverse event after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We aimed to determine the incidence of NVUGIH after PCI for AMI and its impact on mortality, morbidity, and health care resource utilization over 11 months.


      We used the Nationwide Readmission Database 2014. Inclusion criteria were (1) a principal diagnosis of ST or non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction, (2) in-hospital PCI, and (3) admission in January. Exclusion criteria were age less than 18 years and elective admission. The primary outcome was the 11-month incidence of NVUGIH. Secondary outcomes were 11-month mortality rate, prolonged mechanical ventilation, shock, upper endoscopy, length of stay, and total hospitalization costs and charges. Independent risk factors for NVUGIH were identified using multivariate logistic regression analysis.


      A total of 22,669 patients were included in the study. The mean age was 63.8 years (range, 63.4-64.1 years), and 31.7% of patients were female. The 11-month incidence of NVUGIH was 1.6%. The onset of NVUGIH was associated with an increase in the 11-month mortality rate (adjusted odds ratio, 1.94; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-3.72; P =.04). The upper endoscopy, shock, and prolonged mechanical ventilation rates were 72%, 6.2%, and 1.9%, respectively. In total, 26,532 days were associated with NVUGIH, with a total health care in-hospital economic burden of U.S.$17.6 million. Independent predictors of NVUGIH were female gender, Charlson comorbidity score, and length of stay.


      The 11-month incidence of NVUGIH among patients who undergo PCI for AMI is 1.6%. NVUGIH has a substantial impact on mortality, morbidity, and in-hospital health care resource utilization.


      ACS (acute coronary syndrome), AMI (acute myocardial infarction), DAPT (dual antiplatelet therapy), LOS (length of stay), NRD (National Readmission Database), NSTEMI (non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction), NVUGIH (nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage), PCI (percutaneous coronary intervention), STEMI (ST-elevation myocardial infarction)
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