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Automatic detection of various abnormalities in capsule endoscopy videos by a deep learning-based system: a multicenter study

      Background and Aims

      A deep convolutional neural network (CNN) system could be a high-level screening tool for capsule endoscopy (CE) reading but has not been established for targeting various abnormalities. We aimed to develop a CNN-based system and compare it with the existing QuickView mode in terms of their ability to detect various abnormalities.

      Methods

      We trained a CNN system using 66,028 CE images (44,684 images of abnormalities and 21,344 normal images). The detection rate of the CNN for various abnormalities was assessed per patient, using an independent test set of 379 consecutive small-bowel CE videos from 3 institutions. Mucosal breaks, angioectasia, protruding lesions, and blood content were present in 94, 29, 81, and 23 patients, respectively. The detection capability of the CNN was compared with that of QuickView mode.

      Results

      The CNN picked up 1,135,104 images (22.5%) from the 5,050,226 test images, and thus, the sampling rate of QuickView mode was set to 23% in this study. In total, the detection rate of the CNN for abnormalities per patient was significantly higher than that of QuickView mode (99% vs 89%, P < .001). The detection rates of the CNN for mucosal breaks, angioectasia, protruding lesions, and blood content were 100% (94 of 94), 97% (28 of 29), 99% (80 of 81), and 100% (23 of 23), respectively, and those of QuickView mode were 91%, 97%, 80%, and 96%, respectively.

      Conclusions

      We developed and tested a CNN-based detection system for various abnormalities using multicenter CE videos. This system could serve as an alternative high-level screening tool to QuickView mode.

      Abbreviations:

      CE (capsule endoscopy), CNN (convolutional neural network), SSD (Single Shot MultiBox Detector), CEST (capsule endoscopy structured terminology)
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