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Accuracy of artificial intelligence–assisted detection of upper GI lesions: a systematic review and meta-analysis

      Background and Aims

      Artificial intelligence (AI)-assisted detection is increasingly used in upper endoscopy. We performed a meta-analysis to determine the diagnostic accuracy of AI on detection of gastric and esophageal neoplastic lesions and Helicobacter pylori (HP) status.

      Methods

      We searched Embase, PubMed, Medline, Web of Science, and Cochrane databases for studies on AI detection of gastric or esophageal neoplastic lesions and HP status. After assessing study quality using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies tool, a bivariate meta-analysis following a random-effects model was used to summarize the data and plot hierarchical summary receiver-operating characteristic curves. The diagnostic accuracy was determined by the area under the hierarchical summary receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC).

      Results

      Twenty-three studies including 969,318 images were included. The AUC of AI detection of neoplastic lesions in the stomach, Barrett’s esophagus, and squamous esophagus and HP status were .96 (95% confidence interval [CI], .94-.99), .96 (95% CI, .93-.99), .88 (95% CI, .82-.96), and .92 (95% CI, .88-.97), respectively. AI using narrow-band imaging was superior to white-light imaging on detection of neoplastic lesions in squamous esophagus (.92 vs .83, P < .001). The performance of AI was superior to endoscopists in the detection of neoplastic lesions in the stomach (AUC, .98 vs .87; P < .001), Barrett’s esophagus (AUC, .96 vs .82; P < .001), and HP status (AUC, .90 vs .82; P < .001).

      Conclusions

      AI is accurate in the detection of upper GI neoplastic lesions and HP infection status. However, most studies were based on retrospective reviews of selected images, which requires further validation in prospective trials.

      Abbreviations:

      AI (artificial intelligence), AUC (area under the hierarchical summary receiver-operating characteristic curve), CI (confidence interval), CNN (convoluted neural network), HP (Helicobacter pylori), NBI (narrow-band imaging), SVM (support vector model), WLI (white-light imaging)
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