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Incidence of metachronous cancer after endoscopic submucosal dissection: a comparison between undifferentiated-type and differentiated-type early gastric cancer

      Background and Aims

      Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) has become an important and minimally invasive treatment for early gastric cancer (EGC) with a negligible risk of metastasis not only for differentiated-type (D-type) cancer but also for undifferentiated-type (UD-type) cancer. We aimed to investigate the incidence and characteristics of metachronous cancer after ESD for UD-type cancer, which has not yet been elucidated.

      Methods

      In total, 175 patients who underwent ESD for UD-type EGC were enrolled. For comparison, 350 patients who underwent ESD for D-type EGC during the same period were randomly selected. These patients underwent a follow-up EGD annually. The median observation period was 6.0 years and 5.4 years, respectively.

      Results

      The annual incidence of metachronous cancer after ESD for UD-type and D-type cancer was .9% and 5.3%, respectively. Among the patients who underwent ESD for UD-type cancer, 30.9% of patients were uninfected with Helicobacter pylori, whereas all patients who underwent ESD for D-type cancer were infected with H pylori. All patients who developed metachronous cancer were infected with H pylori. UD-type metachronous cancer developed more frequently in patients after ESD for UD-type cancer than after ESD for D-type cancer, and the curative resection rate of ESD was significantly lower in these cases.

      Conclusions

      Metachronous cancers developed only in H pylori-infected patients in this cohort. Although metachronous cancer incidence was significantly less frequent in patients after ESD for UD-type cancer, the curative resection rate of ESD was significantly lower. Routine surveillance should be conducted more carefully after ESD for UD-type cancer, especially in H pylori-infected patients.

      Graphical abstract

      Abbreviations:

      D-type (differentiated type), EGC (early gastric cancer), ESD (endoscopic submucosal dissection), RR (risk ratio), UD-type (undifferentiated type)
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