Endoscopic full-thickness suturing plus argon plasma mucosal coagulation versus argon plasma mucosal coagulation alone for weight regain after gastric bypass: a systematic review and meta-analysis

      Background and Aims

      Endoscopic transoral outlet reduction (TORe) has been used to manage weight regain after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. We conducted a meta-analysis to summarize the efficacy and safety of the two most commonly used techniques: full-thickness suturing plus argon plasma mucosal coagulation (ft-TORe) and argon plasma mucosal coagulation alone (APMC-TORe).


      A literature search of publication databases was performed from their inception to February 2020 for relevant studies. The outcomes of interest were percentage total body weight loss, gastrojejunal anastomosis (GJA) diameter, and adverse events (AEs). The pooled effect estimates were analyzed using a random-effects model. Meta-regression was conducted to identify associations between GJA diameter and weight loss.


      Nine ft-TORe (n = 737) and 7 APMC-TORe (n = 888) studies were included. APMC-TORe was performed as a series of sessions (mean number of sessions ranging from 1.2 to 3), whereas ft-TORe was mostly performed as a single session. Percentage total body weight loss was 8.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 6.3%-9.7%), 9.5% (95% CI, 8.1%-11.0%), and 5.8% (95% CI, 4.3%-7.1%) after ft-TORe and 9.0% (95% CI, 4.1%-13.9%), 10.2% (95% CI, 8.4%-12.1%), and 9.5% (95% CI, 5.7%-13.2%) after APMC-TORe at 3, 6, and 12 months, respectively, with no weight-loss difference at 3 and 6 months (P > .05). Only one severe AE was observed after APMC-TORe and none after ft-TORe. Stricture formation was the most common AE (ft-TORe 3.3% and APMC-TORe 4.8%, P = .38). All were successfully treated by endoscopic dilation or conservative treatment. Smaller aperture of the post-TORe GJA and greater change in the GJA diameter correlated with greater weight loss in APMC-TORe and numerical trends in ft-TORe.


      This meta-analysis demonstrates that both ft-TORe and APMC-TORe offer significant and comparable weight-loss outcomes with a high and comparable safety profile. However, APMC-TORe typically required multiple endoscopic sessions. Identifying a goal for the final and change in GJA diameter could be useful treatment targets.

      Graphical abstract


      AE (adverse event), APMC (argon plasma mucosal coagulation), CI (confidence interval), ft (full-thickness), GJA (gastrojejunal anastomosis), PIVI (Preservation and Incorporation of Valuable Innovations), RCT (randomized controlled trial), SD (standard deviation), TBWL (total body weight loss), TORe (endoscopic transoral outlet reduction)
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