Safety and efficacy of EUS-guided coil and glue injection for the primary prophylaxis of gastric variceal hemorrhage

Published:January 31, 2021DOI:

      Background and Aims

      Gastric variceal bleeding (GVB) is associated with high morbidity and mortality. EUS-guided coil and cyanoacrylate (CYA) injection (EUS-CCI) has been shown to be an effective therapy in acute bleeding and secondary prophylaxis; however, there is a paucity of data on primary prophylaxis.


      In this single-center observational study, adult patients with high-risk gastric varices (GV; size >10 mm or cherry red spot) without prior bleeding underwent EUS-CCI for the primary prophylaxis of GVB between June 2009 and December 2019. The primary outcome was post-treatment GVB.


      Eighty patients with a mean variceal size of 22.5 ± 9.4 mm and a mean length of follow-up of 3.0 ± 2.4 years were included. The etiology of portal hypertension was cirrhosis in 71 patients (88.7%) and noncirrhotic in 9 (11.3). The mean model for end-stage liver disease score was 12.3 ± 3.7 in patients with cirrhosis. The mean coil number was 1.5 (range, 1-3) and mean glue volume injected 2 mL (range, .5-5). Technical success was achieved in 100%, 96.7% had EUS confirmation of GV obliteration, and 67.7% were obliterated with 1 treatment session. Post-treatment GVB occurred in 2 patients (2.5%) and adverse events in 4 (4.9%). No deaths related to GVB occurred, and emergent transjugular intrahepatic shunts were not needed during the follow-up period.


      In patients with high-risk GV, EUS-CCI for primary prophylaxis is highly effective at preventing GVB with a low rate of adverse events. Primary prophylaxis of high-risk GV with coil and CYA glue injection should be considered in centers with the appropriate expertise.


      CYA (cyanoacrylate), EUS-CCI (EUS-guided coil and cyanoacrylate injection), GV (gastric varices), GVB (gastric variceal bleed), NNT (number needed to treat), NSBB (nonselective beta-blocker), PE (pulmonary emboli), TIPS (transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt)
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