Safety and efficacy of over-the-scope clips versus standard therapy for high-risk nonvariceal upper GI bleeding: systematic review and meta-analysis

      Background and Aims

      Upper GI bleeding (UGIB) is a common condition associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Endoscopic hemostasis remains the mainstay of therapy and is mainly aimed at effective hemostasis and prevention of rebleeding. Lesions with high-risk stigmata can have rebleeding rates of as high as 26.3%. Rebleeding is associated with increased mortality and reduced success rates of endoscopic retreatment. The over-the-scope-clip (OTSC) is a device with widespread endoscopic indications including hemostasis for nonvariceal UGIB (NVUGIB). The current study presents a systematic review and meta-analysis comparing OTSCs versus standard therapy (STD) for NVUGIB.


      Multiple databases were searched through April 2022 for studies comparing OTSCs and STD for NVUGIBs. Primary outcomes were clinical success rates, rebleeding rates, and procedure times, and secondary outcomes were mortality rates and length of hospitalization. Meta-analysis was performed to determine pooled odds ratios to compare outcomes between the OTSC and STD groups.


      Ten studies, including 4 randomized controlled trials, with 914 patients were included in the final analysis. Of patients with NVUGIB, 431 were treated with OTSCs and 483 with STD. Patients treated with OTSCs had an overall lower risk of 7-day (risk ratio [RR], .41; 95% confidence interval [CI], .24-.68; I2 = 0%) and 30-day rebleeding (RR, .46; 95% CI, .31-.65; I2 = 0%). Clinical success rates were higher with OTSCs compared with STD (RR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.06-1.75). Mean procedure time was shorter in the OTSC group by 6.62 minutes (95% CI, 2.58-10.67) versus the STD group (I2 = 84%). There was no statistically significant difference in terms of mortality between the OTSC and STD groups (RR, .55; 95% CI, .24-1.24; I2 = 0%). Length of hospitalization was comparable between both groups, with a pooled mean difference for OTSCs versus STD of .87 days (95% CI, –1.62 to 3.36 days; I2 = 71%).


      Although our study was limited to high-risk NVUGIB, our analysis showed that hemostasis with OTSCs is associated with a lower 7-day and 30-day rebleeding rates, higher clinical success rates, and shorter procedure time with similar mortality rates and length of hospital stay as compared with STD.

      Graphical abstract


      CI (confidence interval), NVUGIB (nonvariceal upper GI bleeding), OTSC (over-the-scope clip), RCT (randomized controlled trial), RR (risk ratio), STD (standard therapy), UGIB (upper GI bleeding)
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