Background and Aims
Abbreviations:AI (artificial intelligence), AUROC (area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve), CCA (cholangiocarcinoma), CI (confidence interval), CNN (convolutional neural network), HQB (high quality-benign), HQM (high quality-malignant), HQS (high quality-suspicious), LQ (Low quality), MBS (malignant biliary strictures), ROC (receiver-operating characteristic), UNI (uninformative)
Purchase one-time access:Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
One-time access price info
- For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
- For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'
- Increasing mortality in the United States from cholangiocarcinoma: an analysis of the National Center for Health Statistics Database.BMC Gastroenterol. 2016; 16: 117
- The impact of changed strategies for patients with cholangiocarcinoma in this millenium.HPB Surg. 2015; 2015736049
- Treatment and survival of resected and unresected distal cholangiocarcinoma: a nationwide study.Acta Oncol. 2019; 58: 1048-1055
- Cholangiocarcinoma trends, incidence, and relative survival in Khon Kaen, Thailand from 1989 through 2013: a population-based cancer registry study.J Epidemiol. 2019; 29: 197-204
- Incidence of benign lesions in patients resected for suspicious hilar obstruction.Br J Surg. 2001; 88: 48-51
- Incidence of benign pathology in patients undergoing hepatic resection for suspected malignancy.Surgeon. 2003; 1: 32-38
- Asia-Pacific consensus recommendations on endoscopic tissue acquisition for biliary strictures [Review].Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2018; 48: 138-151
- Comparative effectiveness of biliary brush cytology and intraductal biopsy for detection of malignant biliary strictures: a systematic review and meta-analysis.Gastrointest Endosc. 2015; 81: 168-176
- Impact of trimodality sampling on detection of malignant biliary strictures compared with patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis.Gastrointest Endosc. 2022; 95: 884-892
- Diagnostic yield of EUS-guided FNA for malignant biliary stricture: a systematic review and meta-analysis.Gastrointest Endosc. 2016; 83: 290-298
- Trans-peritoneal fine needle aspiration biopsy of hilar cholangiocarcinoma is associated with disease dissemination.HPB. 2011; 13: 356-360
- Prospective cytological assessment of gastrointestinal luminal fluid acquired during EUS: a potential source of false-positive FNA and needle tract seeding.Am J Gastroenterol. 2010; 105: 1311-1318
- Single-operator cholangioscopy and targeted biopsies in the diagnosis of indeterminate biliary strictures: a systematic review.Gastrointest Endosc. 2015; 82: 608-614
- Is single-operator peroral cholangioscopy a useful tool for the diagnosis of indeterminate biliary lesion? A systematic review and meta-analysis.Gastrointest Endosc. 2015; 82: 79-87
- Cholangioscopy biopsies improve detection of cholangiocarcinoma when combined with cytology and FISH, but not in patients with PSC.Dig Dis Sci. 2020; 65: 1471-1478
- Safety, diagnostic accuracy and therapeutic efficacy of digital single-operator cholangioscopy.United Eur Gastroenterol J. 2018; 6: 902-909
- Digital, single-operator cholangiopancreatoscopy in the diagnosis and management of pancreatobiliary disorders: a multicenter clinical experience (with video).Gastrointest Endosc. 2016; 84: 649-655
- Performance of a fully disposable, digital, single-operator cholangiopancreatoscope.Endoscopy. 2017; 49: 651-658
- Diagnostic and therapeutic single-operator cholangiopancreatoscopy with SpyGlassDS: results of a multicenter retrospective cohort study.Surg Endosc. 2018; 32: 3981-3988
- Diagnostic accuracy and interobserver agreement of digital single-operator cholangioscopy for indeterminate biliary strictures.Gastrointest Endosc. 2021; 94: 1059-1068
- Application of artificial intelligence using a convolutional neural network for detecting gastric cancer in endoscopic images.Gastric Cancer. 2018; 21: 653-660
- Artificial intelligence and capsule endoscopy: automatic detection of vascular lesions using a convolutional neural network.Ann Gastroenterol. 2021; 34: 820-828
- Utilisation of artificial intelligence for the development of an EUS-convolutional neural network model trained to enhance the diagnosis of autoimmune pancreatitis.Gut. 2021; 70: 1335-1344
- Application of artificial intelligence using a novel EUS-based convolutional neural network model to identify and distinguish benign and malignant hepatic masses.Gastrointest Endosc. 2021; 93: 1121-1130
- Clinical diagnosis and staging of cholangiocarcinoma.Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2011; 8: 512-522
- Deep residual learning for image recognition.ArXiv. Epub. 2015; (Dec 10. Available at https://arxiv.org/abs/1512.03385. Accessed December 2, 2022)
Deng J, Dong W, Socher R, et al. Imagenet: a large-scale hierarchical image database. 2009 IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition; 2009. p. 248-255.
- Deep learning with Keras.Birmingham, UK: Packt Publishing Ltd, 2017
Martin A, Agarwal A, Barham P, et al. TensorFlow: large-scale machine learning on heterogeneous distributed systems. ArXiv. Epub 2015 Mar 16. Available at: https://arxiv.org/abs/1603.04467. Accessed December 2, 2022.
- Scikit-learn: machine learning in Python.Journal of Machine Learning Research. 2011; 12: 2825-2830
- Artificial intelligence for automatic diagnosis of biliary stricture malignancy status in single-operator cholangioscopy: a pilot study.Gastrointest Endosc. 2022; 95: 339-348
- Diversity in machine learning.IEEE Access. 2019; 7: 64323-64350
- Digital single-operator cholangioscopy (DSOC) improves interobserver agreement (IOA) and accuracy for evaluation of indeterminate biliary strictures: the Monaco classification.J Clin Gastroenterol. 2022; 56: e94-e97
- Artificial intelligence in endoscopy.Dig Dis Sci. 2022; 67: 1553-1572
- Real-time automated diagnosis of precancerous lesions and early esophageal squamous cell carcinoma using a deep learning model (with videos).Gastrointest Endosc. 2020; 91: 41-51
- Klatskin-mimicking lesions.Diagnostics. 2021; : 11
- Cholangioscopy and cholangioscopic forceps biopsy in patients with indeterminate pancreaticobiliary pathology.Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006; 4: 219-225
- Single-operator cholangioscopy for the diagnosis of bile duct lymphoma: a case report and brief review of the literature.Endoscopy. 2013; 45: E359-E360
DISCLOSURE: The following authors disclosed financial relationships: N. B. Marya: Consultant for Boston Scientific. B. T. Petersen: Consultant for Olympus America and Pentax; research support from Boston Scientific and Ambu. R. Law: Consultant for ConMed, Medtronic and Boston Scientific. A. Storm: Research support from Apollo Endosurgery, Boston Scientific, Endo-TAGSS, Endogenex, and Enterasense; consultant for Apollo Endosurgery, Erbe, GI Dynamics, and Olympus. B. K. Abu Dayyeh: Consultant for Endogenex, Endo-TAGSS, Metamodix, BFKW, USGI, Cairn Diagnostics, Aspire Bariatrics, and Boston Scientific; research support from USGI, Cairn Diagnostics, Aspire Bariatrics, Boston Scientific, Medtronic, Endogastric Solutions, Apollo Endosurgery, and Spatz Medical; speaker for Olympus, Johnson and Johnson, Medtronic, and Endogastric Solutions. V. Chandrasekhara: Consultant for Boston Scientific, Covidien, LP, and Interpace diagnostics; shareholder for Nevakar Corporation. All other authors disclosed no financial relationships.
DIVERSITY, EQUITY, AND INCLUSION: We worked to ensure gender balance in the recruitment of human subjects. We worked to ensure ethnic or other types of diversity in the recruitment of human subjects. One or more of the authors of this paper self-identifies as an under-represented gender minority in science. While citing references scientifically relevant for this work, we actively worked to promote gender balance in our reference list. The author list of this paper includes contributors from the location where the research was conducted who participated in the data collection, design, analysis, and/or interpretation of the work.