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Background and aims
The over-the-scope-clip (OTSC) substantially improved the endoscopic armamentarium for the treatment of severe gastrointestinal bleeding and can potentially overcome limitations of standard clips. Recent data indicated a superiority of OTSC in hemostasis as first and second line therapy. However, the impact of the OTSC design (traumatic (-t) or atraumatic (-a) type) in particular in duodenal ulcer bleeding has not been analyzed so far.
Retrospective analysis of a prospective collected database from 2009 until 2020 of six German endoscopic centers. All patients who underwent emergency endoscopy and were treated by an OTSC for duodenal ulcer bleeding were included. OTSC-t and OTSC-a patients were compared by Fisher’s exact test, chi-square- or Mann-Whitney U-test as appropriate. A propensity-score based 1:1 matching was performed to obtain equal distribution of baseline characteristics in both groups.
The entire cohort comprised 173 patients (93 OTSC-a, 80 OTSC-t). Age, gender, anticoagulant therapy, Rockall-Score and treatment regimen had similar distributions in the two groups. However, OTSC-t group showed significantly more active bleeding ulcers (Forrest Ia/b). Matching identified 132 patients (66 in both groups) with comparable baseline characteristics. Initial bleeding hemostasis (OTSC-a: 90.9%, OTSC-t: 87.9%, p=0.82) or 72h-mortality (OTSC-a: 4.5%, OTSC-t: 6.0%, p>0.99) were not significantly different but the OTSC-t group revealed a clearly higher rate of rebleeding (34.9% vs. 7.6%, p<0.001) and necessity of red blood cell transfusions (5.1±3.4 vs. 2.5±2.4 concentrates, p<0.001).
OTSC-a should be the preferred option for duodenal ulcer bleeding if the endoscopist aims for an over-the-scope-clip.
Abbreviations:95%CI (95% confidence interval), AEs (adverse events), DOAC (direct oral anticoagulant), INR (International Normalized Ratio), NVUGIH (non-variceal upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage), OTSC (over-the-scope-clip), OTSC-a (atraumatic over-the-scope-clip), OTSC-t (traumatic over-the-scope-clip), RBC (red blood cell), RCT (randomized controlled trial), SD (standard deviation), SMD (standardized mean difference), TTS (through-the-scope)
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Accepted: January 28, 2023
Received in revised form: January 27, 2023
Received: August 13, 2022
Publication stageIn Press Journal Pre-Proof
© 2023 by the American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy