Background and aims
Abbreviations:AI (Artificial intelligent), MBS (Malignant biliary stricture), DSOC (Digital single-operator cholangioscopy), AUC (Area under the curve), ERCP (Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography), FISH (Fluorescent in situ hybridization), EUS (Endoscopic ultrasound), IDUS (Intraductal ultrasound), NGS (Next-generation sequencing), VI (Visual impression), DB (Direct biopsy), CI (Confidence interval), PPV (Positive predictive value), NPV (Negative predictive value)
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L. W., B. Z., D. T., and XP. Z. conceptualized and designed the study; X. Z., D. T., and M. N. designed data collection instruments, collected data, carried out the initial analyses, and drafted the initial manuscript; J. Z. and W. L. developed, trained the AI model and carried out the initial analyses; L.W., B. Z., P. Y., Z. Z., T. Y., Q. Z.Y. S., L. Z., and R. Z. contributed to data collection and patient follow-up. L. W., T. Y., and Q. Z. supervised, and annotated data, and critically reviewed the article for important intellectual content. W. L. and D. T. modified the manuscript. All the authors reviewed and approved the final version of the manuscript. The corresponding authors and senior authors had full access to all data. L. W., B. Z., D. T., XP. Z., X. Z., and M. N. accessed and verified the data. The corresponding authors had full access to all data and took final responsibility for the submission and publication of the manuscript.