Automated artificial intelligence scoring systems for the endoscopic assessment of ulcerative colitis: How far are we from clinical application?Artificial intelligence (AI) is going to drastically change our approach to diagnostic endoscopy. In contrast to its human counterpart, AI can manage an exceptional amount of data simultaneously, does not get fatigued, and can be highly effective and efficient. In the past couple of years, we have witnessed a literal blossom of AI systems applied to digestive endoscopy. Industries have been leading this first part of AI application, with the launch of real-time automated polyp detection and characterization systems to screening colonoscopy.
In-stent radiofrequency ablation with uncovered metal stent placement for tumor ingrowth/overgrowth causing self-expandable metal stent occlusion in distal malignant biliary obstruction: multicenter propensity score–matched studyIn patients with unresectable malignant biliary obstruction (MBO), endoscopic drainage with a self-expandable metal stent (SEMS) is a well-established treatment, but stent patency is limited. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of in-stent radiofrequency ablation (IS-RFA) followed by uncovered SEMS placement for the management of occluded SEMSs.
Computer-aided characterization of early cancer in Barrett’s esophagus on i-scan magnification imaging: a multicenter international studyWe aimed to develop a computer-aided characterization system that could support the diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus (BE) on magnification endoscopy.
Impact of second-generation transoral incisionless fundoplication on atypical GERD symptoms: a systematic review and meta-analysisTransoral incisionless fundoplication (TIF) using the EsophyX device (EndoGastric Solutions, Inc, Redmond, Wash, USA) is a minimally invasive endoscopic fundoplication technique. Our study aimed to assess the efficacy of TIF for atypical GERD symptoms in patients with chronic or refractory GERD.
Comparison of EUS-guided ablation and surgical resection for nonfunctioning small pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors: a propensity score–matching studyTreatment strategies for small pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) <2 cm in size are still under debate. The feasibility and safety of EUS-guided ethanol ablation (EUS-EA) have been demonstrated. However, sample sizes in previous studies were small with no comparative studies on surgery. Therefore, we aimed to compare the safety and long-term outcomes of EUS-EA with those of surgery for the management of nonfunctioning small PNETs.
Early (<4 weeks) versus standard (≥4 weeks) endoscopic drainage of pancreatic walled-off fluid collections: a systematic review and meta-analysisPrevious studies have demonstrated that the ideal time for drainage of walled-off pancreatic fluid collections is 4 to 6 weeks after their development. However, some pancreatic collections, notably infected pancreatic fluid collections, require earlier drainage. Nevertheless, the optimal timing of the first intervention is unclear, and consensus data are sparse. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of EUS-guided drainage of pancreatic fluid collections <4 weeks after development compared with ≥4 weeks after development.
Role of through-the-scope catheter–based EUS in inflammatory bowel disease diagnosis and activity assessmentDistinguishing Crohn’s disease (CD) from ulcerative colitis (UC) may be difficult when the disease is limited to the colon. Transmural healing is an important adjunctive measure of inflammatory bowel disease activity. The aim of this study was to examine the role of EUS in differentiating CD versus UC and evaluating transmural disease activity.
Impact of peroral endoscopic myotomy on high-resolution manometry findings and their association with the procedure’s outcomesPeroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) is conducted for patients with esophageal motility disorders based on high-resolution manometry (HRM) findings. However, the impact of POEM on HRM findings and the associations between post-POEM HRM and outcomes have not been clarified.
Underwater versus conventional EMR for nonpedunculated colorectal lesions: a randomized clinical trialConventional endoscopic mucosal resection (CEMR) is the standard modality for removing nonpedunculated colorectal lesions. Underwater endoscopic mucosal resection (UEMR) has emerged as an alternative method. There are few comparative studies between these techniques, especially evaluating recurrence. Therefore, the purpose of this trial was to compare CEMR and UEMR for the resection of colorectal lesions with respect to efficacy, safety, and recurrence rate.
Development and validation of artificial neural networks model for detection of Barrett’s neoplasia: a multicenter pragmatic nonrandomized trial (with video)The aim of this study was to develop and externally validate a computer-aided detection (CAD) system for the detection and localization of Barrett’s neoplasia and assess its performance compared with that of general endoscopists in a statistically powered multicenter study by using real-time video sequences.
Reduction in mortality after percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube insertion is likely due to careful patient selectionThe insertion of a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube is an invaluable tool to gain long-term nutritional support for patients who cannot meet their nutritional needs for any of several reasons, with a vast volume of data showing that for certain conditions this procedure can improve patient outcomes. Unfortunately, PEG tube insertion has several adverse events, such as aspiration pneumonia, bleeding, infection, leakage, and tube dysfunction or displacement. Minor adverse events can be common and under-reported; more major adverse events arise in approximately 3% of PEG tube insertions.
Diagnostic yield and technical performance of the novel motorized spiral enteroscopy compared with single-balloon enteroscopy in suspected Crohn's disease: a prospective study (with video)Both single-balloon enteroscopy (SBE) and the novel motorized spiral enteroscopy (NMSE) are effective techniques for device-assisted enteroscopy (DAE). To date, no study has prospectively compared both modalities in suspected Crohn’s disease (CD).
Next-generation sequencing mutation analysis on biliary brush cytology for differentiation of benign and malignant strictures in primary sclerosing cholangitisDifferentiation of benign and malignant biliary tract strictures on brush material remains highly challenging but is essential for adequate clinical management of patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). In this case-control study, biliary brush cytology samples from PSC patients with cholangiocarcinoma (PSC-CCA) were compared with samples from PSC patients without CCA (PSC-control subjects) using next-generation sequencing (NGS).
Clinical outcomes of endoscopic submucosal dissection for superficial circumferential esophageal squamous cell carcinomaOur aim was to elucidate the clinical outcomes of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for superficial circumferential esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (cESCC).
Usefulness of a novel computer-aided detection system for colorectal neoplasia: a randomized controlled trialArtificial intelligence–based computer-aid detection (CADe) devices have been recently tested in colonoscopies, increasing the adenoma detection rate (ADR), mainly in Asian populations. However, evidence for the benefit of these devices in the occidental population is still low. We tested a new CADe device, namely, ENDO-AID (OIP-1) (Olympus, Tokyo, Japan), in clinical practice.
Expanding the role of pneumatic dilation for nonachalasia patients: a comparative studyTreatment options for nonachalasia obstructive disorders of the esophagogastric junction (EGJ) are limited. The aim of this study was to assess the treatment efficacy of pneumatic dilation (PD) for the disorders of EGJ outflow obstruction (EGJOO) and postfundoplication EGJ obstruction (PF-EGJO) and to assess attitudes regarding training in PD.
Patient-related adverse events and device failures associated with commercially available enteral or duodenal self-expanding metal stents: an analysis of the MAUDE databaseDuodenal stents are widely used to treat patients with malignant gastric outlet obstruction (MGOO), most commonly from pancreatic cancer. The WallFlex (Boston Scientific, Natick, Mass, USA) and Evolution (Cook Endoscopy, Winston-Salem, NC, USA) duodenal stents are in widespread use for treating MGOO. The objective of this study was to analyze device failures and patient-related adverse events reported to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for these 2 stents.
Closure of large mucosal defects for prevention of strictures after duodenal endoscopic submucosal dissection (with video)Although lesions occupying a large circumference are associated with the risk of post–endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) strictures, the corresponding data for duodenal lesions are unknown. We aimed to analyze the incidence of post-ESD strictures after wide-field duodenal ESD.
Novel classification system for walled-off necrosis: a step toward standardized nomenclature and risk-stratification frameworkThe optimal therapeutic approach for walled-off necrosis (WON) is not fully understood, given the lack of a validated classification system. We propose a novel and robust classification system based on radiologic and clinical factors to standardize the nomenclature, provide a framework to guide comparative effectiveness trials, and inform the optimal WON interventional approach.
Soft self-expandable metal stent to treat painful pancreatic duct strictures secondary to chronic pancreatitis: a prospective multicenter trialFully covered self-expandable metal stents (FCSEMSs) may offer a treatment option for pain associated with a dilated pancreatic duct (PD) in chronic pancreatitis (CP), but optimal patient selection and FCSEMS design, efficacy, and safety remain uncertain. We studied an investigational pancreatic FCSEMS for treatment of CP-associated pain.
Incidence and natural history of gastric high-grade dysplasia in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis syndromeFamilial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is characterized by high risks of colonic and extracolonic tumors. Recent studies have suggested a rising risk for gastric cancer (GC). We sought to define the spectrum of premalignant gastric polyps in FAP, focusing on high-grade dysplasia (HGD).
Covered versus uncovered double bare self-expandable metal stent for palliation of unresectable extrahepatic malignant biliary obstruction: a randomized controlled multicenter trialIn a recent randomized controlled trial, a double bare metal stent (DBS) showed better stent patency than single-layer metal stents. However, clear evidence comparing the efficacy of uncovered (UCDBS) and partially covered (PCDBS) DBSs for distal malignant biliary obstruction (MBO) is lacking. Therefore, we compared the clinical outcomes including stent patency of UCDBSs versus PCDBSs.
Genotype–phenotype correlation of small-intestinal polyps on small-bowel capsule endoscopy in familial adenomatous polyposisIn familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), neoplastic lesions outside the colon have become increasingly important. The genotype–phenotype correlation has been established for duodenal polyps, and regular screening is recommended. However, this correlation remains unclear for small-intestinal lesions, except for reports on the relationship between their occurrence and Spigelman stage. Here, we used small-bowel capsule endoscopy (SBCE) to investigate the genotype–phenotype correlation of small-intestinal polyps in FAP.
Second-generation distal attachment cuff for adenoma detection in screening colonoscopy: a randomized multicenter studyRandomized studies have demonstrated that a distal attachment cap with rubber side arms, the Endocuff Vision (ECV; Olympus America, Center Valley, Pa, USA), increased colonoscopic adenoma detection rate (ADR) in various mixed patient collectives. This is the first study to evaluate its use in a primary colonoscopic screening program.
Comparative accuracy of endosonographic shear wave elastography and transcutaneous liver stiffness measurement: a pilot studyVibration-controlled transient elastography (VCTE) is a validated test for assessing liver fibrosis but may be unreliable in select patients, including those with morbid obesity. The limitations of VCTE may be overcome by EUS-guided shear wave elastography (EUS-SWE).
Scheduled endoscopic treatment of biliary anastomotic and nonanastomotic strictures after orthotopic liver transplantationBiliary strictures after liver transplantation are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Although various endoscopic treatment strategies are available, consensus on a particular strategy is lacking. Moreover, the influence of endoscopic therapy on overall survival has not been studied. This retrospective study aimed to evaluate the impact of scheduled endoscopic dilatation of biliary strictures after orthotopic liver transplantation on therapeutic success, adverse events, and survival.
Timing of colonoscopy in acute lower GI bleeding: a multicenter retrospective cohort studyWe aimed to determine the optimal timing of colonoscopy and factors that benefit patients who undergo early colonoscopy for acute lower GI bleeding.
Simple risk score to predict the likelihood of a positive EUS in idiopathic acute pancreatitisWe sought to derive a risk score, DORM65, of known variables to predict the likelihood of a positive EUS in patients with idiopathic acute pancreatitis (IAP).
Long-term rebleeding rate and predictive factors of rebleeding after capsule endoscopy in patients with obscure GI bleedingThe incidence of rebleeding in obscure GI bleeding (OGIB) remains unclear. This study used capsule endoscopy (CE) to determine the long-term rebleeding rate and predictive factors for rebleeding in patients with OGIB.
Safety and efficacy of over-the-scope clips versus standard therapy for high-risk nonvariceal upper GI bleeding: systematic review and meta-analysisUpper GI bleeding (UGIB) is a common condition associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Endoscopic hemostasis remains the mainstay of therapy and is mainly aimed at effective hemostasis and prevention of rebleeding. Lesions with high-risk stigmata can have rebleeding rates of as high as 26.3%. Rebleeding is associated with increased mortality and reduced success rates of endoscopic retreatment. The over-the-scope-clip (OTSC) is a device with widespread endoscopic indications including hemostasis for nonvariceal UGIB (NVUGIB).
Environmental and health outcomes of single-use versus reusable duodenoscopesThe large-scale effects of duodenoscopes on the environment and public health have not been quantified. Our aim was to perform an exploratory life cycle assessment comparing environmental and human health effects of single-use duodenoscopes (SDs) and reusable duodenoscopes (RDs).
Comparison of no stent fixation, endoscopic suturing, and a novel over-the-scope clip for stent fixation in preventing migration of fully covered self-expanding metal stents: a retrospective comparative study (with video)Endoscopic suturing and over-the-scope clips (OTSCs) are used to prevent migration of fully covered self-expandable metal stents (FCSEMSs). Recently, a dedicated OTSC was developed for securing FCSEMSs. Our primary aim was to compare the frequency of stent migration without stent fixation versus fixation with suturing or OTSCs, and out secondary aims were to compare clinical success, procedure duration, and adverse events.
Randomized trial comparing general anesthesia with anesthesiologist-administered deep sedation for ERCP in average-risk patientsGeneral anesthesia (GA) or monitored anesthesia care (MAC) is increasingly used to perform ERCP. The definitive choice between the 2 sedative types remains to be established. This study compared outcomes of GA with MAC in ERCP performed in patients at average risk for sedation-related adverse events (SRAEs).
Robotics in therapeutic endoscopy (with video)Since its inception, endoscopy has evolved from a solely diagnostic procedure to an expanding therapeutic field within gastroenterology. The incorporation of robotics in gastroenterology initially addressed shortcomings of flexible endoscopes in natural orifice transluminal endoscopy. Developing therapeutic endoscopic robotic platforms now offer operators improved ergonomics, visualization, dexterity, precision, and control and the possibility of increasing proficiency and standardization of complex endoscopic procedures including endoscopic submucosal dissection, endoscopic full-thickness resection, and endoscopic suturing.
Clip closure to prevent adverse events after EMR of proximal large nonpedunculated colorectal polyps: meta-analysis of individual patient data from randomized controlled trialsAfter EMR, prophylactic clipping is often performed to prevent clinically significant post-EMR bleeding (CSPEB) and other adverse events (AEs). Prior evidence syntheses have lacked sufficient power to assess clipping in relevant subgroups or in nonbleeding AEs. We performed a meta-analysis of individual patient data (IPD) from randomized trials assessing the efficacy of clipping to prevent AEs after EMR of proximal large nonpedunculated colorectal polyps (LNPCPs) ≥20 mm.
Impact of endobiliary radiofrequency ablation on biliary drainage in patients with malignant biliary strictures treated with uncovered self-expandable metal stents: a randomized controlled multicenter trialEndobiliary radiofrequency ablation (RFA), usually combined with endoscopic stent insertion, is a simple procedure with the potential to improve stent patency and patient survival for malignant biliary obstruction. We conducted this randomized multicenter trial to evaluate the impact of RFA on stent patency.
Aerosol and droplet generation in upper and lower GI endoscopy: whole procedure and event-based analysisAerosol-generating procedures have become an important healthcare issue during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic because the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 virus can be transmitted through aerosols. We aimed to characterize aerosol and droplet generation in GI endoscopy, where there is little evidence.
EUS-directed transgastric interventions in Roux-en-Y gastric bypass anatomy: a multicenter experiencePlacement of a lumen-apposing metal stent (LAMS) between the gastric pouch and the excluded stomach allows for EUS-guided transgastric interventions (EDGIs) in patients with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). Although EUS-guided transgastric ERCP (EDGE) outcomes have been reported, data are scant on other endoscopic interventions. We aimed to evaluate the outcomes and safety of EDGIs.
Comparison of cold snare and hot snare polypectomy for the resection of sporadic nonampullary duodenal adenomasNonampullary duodenal adenomas can undergo malignant transformation, making endoscopic resection, often by hot snare (HSP) or cold snare polypectomy (CSP), necessary. Although CSP has been shown to be safer for removal of colon polyps, data comparing these techniques for the resection of duodenal adenomas are limited. Our aim was to compare the safety and efficacy of CSP and HSP for the removal of nonampullary duodenal adenomas.
Comparison of distal primary obesity surgery endolumenal techniques for the treatment of obesity (with videos)Distal primary obesity surgery endolumenal (POSE) procedures involve plication of the gastric body, sparing the fundus. We aim to assess the efficacy of distal POSE procedures and to compare plication techniques (single-helix vs double-helix approaches).
Protein biomarkers in pancreatic juice and serum for identification of pancreatic cancerTo date, surveillance of high-risk individuals for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has not lived up to expectations, as identification of curable stages through imaging remains challenging. Biomarkers are therefore needed. Pancreatic juice (PJ) may be a promising source, because it is in direct contact with the ductal epithelial lining from which PDAC arises. We aimed to develop a panel of biomarkers from serum and PJ to detect PDAC for future surveillance purposes.
Novel “resect and analysis” approach for T2 colorectal cancer with use of artificial intelligenceBecause of a lack of reliable preoperative prediction of lymph node involvement in early-stage T2 colorectal cancer (CRC), surgical resection is the current standard treatment. This leads to overtreatment because only 25% of T2 CRC patients turn out to have lymph node metastasis (LNM). We assessed a novel artificial intelligence (AI) system to predict LNM in T2 CRC to ascertain patients who can be safely treated with less-invasive endoscopic resection such as endoscopic full-thickness resection and do not need surgery.
Predicting success of direct endoscopic necrosectomy with lumen-apposing metal stents for pancreatic walled-off necrosisDirect endoscopic necrosectomy (DEN) with lumen-apposing metal stents (LAMSs) is increasingly used in the management of pancreatic walled-off necrosis (WON). However, it still remains unknown which patients will fail to respond to DEN with LAMSs and require additional surgical intervention. Therefore, the aim of our study was to explore predictors of successful DEN with LAMSs for pancreatic WON.
Efficacy of narrow-band imaging during peroral cholangioscopy for predicting malignancy of indeterminate biliary strictures (with videos)Direct peroral cholangioscopy (POC) can be useful when combined with narrow-band imaging (NBI) to explore the etiologies of indeterminate biliary strictures. We evaluated the efficacy of NBI compared with that of conventional white-light imaging (WLI) during POC diagnosis of indeterminate biliary strictures.
Pre-endoscopy coronavirus disease 2019 screening and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 nucleic acid amplification testing in the Veterans Affairs healthcare system: clinical practice patterns, outcomes, and relationship to procedure volumeThe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had profound impacts worldwide, including on the performance of GI endoscopy. We aimed to describe the performance and outcomes of pre-endoscopy COVID-19 symptom and exposure screening and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT) across the national Veterans Affairs healthcare system and describe the relationship of SARS-CoV-2 NAAT use and resumption of endoscopy services.
Pooled rates of adenoma detection by colonoscopy in asymptomatic average-risk individuals with positive fecal immunochemical test: a systematic review and meta-analysisCurrent adenoma detection rate (ADR) benchmarks for colonoscopy in individuals positive for a fecal immunochemical test (FIT) are ≥45% in men and ≥35% in women. These are based on weak, low-quality evidence. We performed a meta-analysis to ascertain the pooled ADR in FIT-positive colonoscopy.
Incidence of sedation-related adverse events during ERCP with anesthesia assistance: a multicenter observational studyAnesthesia assistance is commonly used for ERCP. General anesthesia (GA) may provide greater airway protection but may lead to hypotension. We aimed to compare GA versus sedation without planned intubation (SWPI) on the incidence of hypoxemia and hypotension. We also explored risk factors for conversion from SWPI to GA.
Gastric peroral endoscopic myotomy outcomes after 4 years of follow-up in a large cohort of patients with refractory gastroparesis (with video)Gastric peroral endoscopic myotomy (G-POEM) is used for refractory gastroparesis (RG) with good early-term but variable mid- and long-term outcomes. Limited data exist about candidates and long-term clinical and predictive factors. Our aim was to evaluate the 4-year follow-up efficacy and predictive factors in patients with RG.
Clinically significant serrated polyp detection rates and risk for postcolonoscopy colorectal cancer: data from the New Hampshire Colonoscopy RegistryHigher adenoma detection rates reduce the risk of postcolonoscopy colorectal cancer (PCCRC). Clinically significant serrated polyps (CSSPs; defined as any sessile serrated polyp, traditional serrated adenoma, large [≥1 cm] or proximal hyperplastic polyp >5 mm) also lead to PCCRC, but there are no data on associated CSSP detection rates (CSSDRs). We used data from the New Hampshire Colonoscopy Registry (NHCR) to investigate the association between PCCRC risk and endoscopist CSSDR.
Endoscopic gastric plication for the treatment of weight regain after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (with video)Gastric plication involves inverting the stomach with tissue anchor placement to achieve serosa-to-serosa apposition. One potential application of gastric plication is the treatment of weight regain after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), a procedure also known as plication transoral outlet reduction (P-TORe). This study aims to assess technical feasibility, safety, and efficacy of P-TORe.
Endoscopic gastroplasty versus laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy: a noninferiority propensity score–matched comparative studyEndoscopic bariatric therapies are less-invasive alternatives to bariatric surgery, and endoscopic gastroplasty (ESG) represents the latest evolution. This study aims to compare weight loss, safety, and comorbidity resolution of ESG compared with laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG).
Efficacy and safety comparison of scissor-type knives with needle-type knives for colorectal endoscopic submucosal dissection: a post-hoc propensity score–matched analysis (with videos)Many knives have been developed to improve the efficacy and safety of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of scissor-type knives for colorectal ESD compared with needle-type knives.
Defining the learning curves of colorectal surgical trainees in colonoscopy using the Assessment of Competency in Endoscopy toolGastroenterology fellows require on average 250 to 275 colonoscopies to achieve competency. For surgical trainees, 50 colonoscopies is deemed adequate. Two training pathways using different assessment methods make any direct comparison impossible. At the Mayo Clinic colonoscopy training of gastroenterology and colorectal surgery (CRS) fellows were merged in 2017, providing a unique opportunity to define the learning curves of CRS trainees using the Assessment of Competency in Endoscopy (ACE) evaluation tool.
Endoscopic eradication therapy for Barrett’s esophagus–related neoplasia: a final 10-year report from the UK National HALO Radiofrequency Ablation RegistryLong-term durability data for effectiveness of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) to prevent esophageal adenocarcinoma in patients with dysplastic Barrett’s esophagus (BE) are lacking.
Analysis of reported adverse events related to single-use duodenoscopes and duodenoscopes with detachable endcapsSingle-use duodenoscopes and duodenoscopes with detachable/disposable caps emerged in the market to mitigate the risk of ERCP-related infections. We aimed to investigate adverse events associated with these devices occurring after U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval.
Reproducibility of the electronic chromoendoscopy PICaSSO score (Paddington International Virtual ChromoendoScopy ScOre) in ulcerative colitis using multiple endoscopic platforms: a prospective multicenter international study (with video)Endoscopic and histologic remission (HR) are key therapeutic targets in the management of ulcerative colitis (UC). The aim of this study was to evaluate the reproducibility of the Paddington International virtual ChromoendoScopy ScOre (PICaSSO), a virtual chromoendoscopy score originally validated by use of the iSCAN platform, with the narrow-band imaging (NBI), linked-color imaging (LCI), and blue-laser imaging (BLI) platforms.
Comparison of 22-gauge standard and Franseen needles in EUS-guided tissue acquisition for diagnosing solid pancreatic lesions: a multicenter randomized controlled trialThis large multicenter randomized controlled trial compared the diagnostic yields of 22-gauge standard and 22-gauge Franseen needles for EUS-guided tissue acquisition (EUS-TA) of solid pancreatic lesions.
Setting up a regional expert panel for complex colorectal polypsAdvanced endoscopic resection techniques for complex colorectal polyps have evolved significantly over the past decade, leading to a management shift from surgical to endoscopic resection as the preferred treatment. However, in practice, interhospital consultation and appropriate referral management remain challenging, leading to unnecessary surgical resections. To support regional care for patients with complex colorectal polyps, facilitate peer consultations, and lower thresholds for referrals, an expert panel consultation platform was initiated in the northwestern region of the Netherlands.
Comparative diagnostic performance of end-cutting fine-needle biopsy needles for EUS tissue sampling of solid pancreatic masses: a network meta-analysisEvidence is limited on the comparative diagnostic performance of newer end-cutting fine-needle biopsy (FNB) needles for tissue sampling of pancreatic masses. We performed a systematic review with network meta-analysis to compare the diagnostic accuracy of available FNB needles for sampling of solid pancreatic lesions.
Post-liver transplantation bile leaks and stricturesMany patients who have undergone a prior liver transplant will need an ERCP, and many need multiple ERCPs. Despite advances in surgical procedures and immunosuppressive therapy, adverse events after liver transplant remain common. Patients can present with a variety of problems including strictures, leaks, biliary cast syndrome, cholangitis, duct ischemia, and other problems. Many biliary endoscopists have little to no experience with these patients and may be understandably hesitant about performing ERCP when called on.
Reliability and responsiveness of endoscopic disease activity assessment in eosinophilic esophagitisEndoscopic outcomes have become important measures of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) disease activity, including as an endpoint in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). We evaluated the operating properties of endoscopic measures for use in EoE RCTs.
Machine learning–based personalized prediction of gastric cancer incidence using the endoscopic and histologic findings at the initial endoscopyAccurate risk stratification for gastric cancer is required for optimal endoscopic surveillance in patients with chronic gastritis. We aimed to develop a machine learning (ML) model that incorporates endoscopic and histologic findings for an individualized prediction of gastric cancer incidence.
Comparison of functional lumen imaging probe and high-resolution manometry to assess response after peroral endoscopic myotomyOutcomes after peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) are assessed clinically by the Eckardt score (ES) or objectively by high-resolution manometry (HRM) and functional lumen imaging probe (FLIP). This study compared HRM and FLIP to evaluate clinical response after POEM.
Correlation of the detection rate of upper GI cancer with artificial intelligence score: results from a multicenter trial (with video)The quality of EGD is a prerequisite for a high detection rate of upper GI lesions, especially early gastric cancer. Our previous study showed that an artificial intelligence system, named intelligent detection endoscopic assistant (IDEA), could help to monitor blind spots and provide an operation score during EGD. Here, we verified the effectiveness of IDEA to help evaluate the quality of EGD in a large-scale multicenter trial.
Comparison of postpolypectomy bleeding events between cold snare polypectomy and hot snare polypectomy for small colorectal lesions: a large-scale propensity score–matched analysisCold snare polypectomy (CSP), a safe procedure for removing colon polyps, has a low prevalence of postpolypectomy bleeding (PPB). Previous studies have failed to demonstrate differences in PPB rates between CSP and hot snare polypectomy (HSP), possibly because of their small sample sizes. This study analyzed PPB rates after CSP and HSP.
Diagnostic and therapeutic yields of early capsule endoscopy and device-assisted enteroscopy in the setting of overt GI bleeding: a systematic review with meta-analysisSmall-bowel capsule endoscopy (SBCE) and device-assisted enteroscopy (DAE) are essential in obscure GI bleeding (OGIB) management. However, the best timing for such procedures remains unknown. This meta-analysis aimed to compare, for the first time, diagnostic and therapeutic yields, detection of active bleeding and vascular lesions, recurrent bleeding, and mortality of “early” versus “nonearly” SBCE and DAE.
New concept for colonoscopy including side optics and artificial intelligenceAdenoma detection rate is the crucial parameter for colorectal cancer screening. Increasing the field of view with additional side optics has been reported to detect flat adenomas hidden behind folds. Furthermore, artificial intelligence (AI) has also recently been introduced to detect more adenomas. We therefore aimed to combine both technologies in a new prototypic colonoscopy concept.
Colorectal cancer patients advocating screening to their siblings: a randomized behavioral interventionSiblings of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients are at increased risk of developing CRC, but screening rates remain low. Through a randomized behavioral intervention, this study aimed to determine whether patients can advocate screening to their siblings using a tailored educational package.
Artificial intelligence for the assessment of bowel preparationA reliable assessment of bowel preparation is important to ensure high-quality colonoscopy. Current bowel preparation scoring systems are limited by interobserver variability. This study aimed to demonstrate objective assessment of bowel preparation adequacy using an artificial intelligence (AI)/convolutional neural network (CNN) algorithm developed from colonoscopy videos.
Novel classification for adverse events in GI endoscopy: the AGREE classificationStandardized registration and evaluation of adverse events (AEs) are essential to assess the safety of endoscopic procedures. We propose a novel classification system, named adverse events in GI endoscopy (AGREE), adapted from a widely accepted surgical tool.
Impact of trimodality sampling on detection of malignant biliary strictures compared with patients with primary sclerosing cholangitisMalignant biliary strictures can be difficult to diagnose, with up to 20% considered indeterminate after initial tissue sampling. This study aimed to determine the performance characteristics of transpapillary biopsy sampling (TPB) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in isolation or in combination with standard brush cytology (BC) in patients who received trimodality sampling for biliary strictures.
Visceral artery pseudoaneurysms in necrotizing pancreatitis: risk of early bleeding with lumen-apposing metal stentsVisceral artery pseudoaneurysm (PSA) in necrotizing pancreatitis (NP) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to evaluate the incidence, clinical presentation, management, and outcomes of PSA in NP.
Standardization of EUS imaging and reporting in high-risk individuals of pancreatic adenocarcinoma: consensus statement of the Pancreatic Cancer Early Detection ConsortiumPancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is an aggressive disease most often diagnosed after local progression or metastatic dissemination, precluding resection and resulting in a high mortality rate. For individuals with elevated personal risk of the development of pancreatic cancer, EUS is a frequently used advanced imaging and diagnostic modality. However, variability in the expertise and definition of EUS findings exists among gastroenterologists, as well as a lack of standardized reporting of relevant findings at the time of examination.
Initial multicenter experience using a novel endoscopic tack and suture system for challenging GI defect closure and stent fixation (with video)Closure of endoscopic resection defects can be achieved with through-the-scope clips, over-the-scope clips, or endoscopic suturing. However, these devices are often limited by their inability to close large, irregular, and difficult-to-reach defects. Thus, we aimed to assess the feasibility and safety of a novel through-the-scope, suture-based closure system developed to overcome these limitations.
Evaluation in real-time use of artificial intelligence during colonoscopy to predict relapse of ulcerative colitis: a prospective studyThe use of artificial intelligence (AI) during colonoscopy is attracting attention as an endoscopist-independent tool to predict histologic disease activity of ulcerative colitis (UC). However, no study has evaluated the real-time use of AI to directly predict clinical relapse of UC. Hence, it is unclear whether the real-time use of AI during colonoscopy helps clinicians make real-time decisions regarding treatment interventions for patients with UC. This study aimed to establish the role of real-time AI in stratifying the relapse risk of patients with UC in clinical remission.
Implications of stable or increasing adenoma detection rate on the need for continuous measurementMeasurement of the adenoma detection rate (ADR) is resource intensive, and the benefit of continuous measurement for colonoscopists with high ADR is unclear. We examined the ADR trends at our center to determine whether continuous measurement for consistently high ADR is warranted.
Optimal mode and power output of electrosurgical units for endoscopic papillectomy based on animal experiments and a preliminary clinical study (with videos)The optimal electrosurgical unit (ESU) settings for endoscopic papillectomy (EP) have not been investigated. We conducted animal experiments to determine the optimal endoCUT settings with VIO (Erbe, Tübingen, Germany) ESUs and then conducted a small clinical study.
Efficacy and safety of split-dose bowel preparation with 1 L polyethylene glycol and ascorbate compared with 2 L polyethylene glycol and ascorbate in a Korean population: a phase IV, multicenter, randomized, endoscopist-blinded studyThe 1-L polyethylene glycol (PEG)-based bowel preparation agent NER1006 (Plenvu; Norgine, Harefield, UK) has shown high cleansing efficacy and tolerability in clinical trials in Europe and North America. However, no clinical trials have yet been reported in Asia. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of 1L PEG-based bowel preparation with Plenvu compared with 2L PEG plus ascorbate bowel preparation in a Korean population.
Endoscopic full-thickness resection of colorectal lesions: a systematic review and meta-analysisEndoscopic full-thickness resection (EFTR) is a novel endoscopic technique for the resection of GI lesions not amenable to standard endoscopic therapy. The primary aim of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate EFTR for the resection of colorectal lesions.
Varying fecal immunochemical test screening cutoffs by age and gender: a way to increase detection rates and reduce the number of colonoscopiesMost colorectal cancer (CRC) screening programs based on the fecal immunochemical test (FIT) use the same cutoff value for all participants. This study aimed at finding age- and gender-specific cutoff values that can improve population-based CRC screening.
Efficacy and safety of EUS-guided through-the-needle microforceps biopsy sampling in categorizing the type of pancreatic cystic lesionsEUS-guided through-the-needle biopsy sampling (EUS-TTNB) using microbiopsy forceps is performed for the accurate diagnosis of pancreatic cystic lesions (PCLs). However, there are no standardized protocols for this procedure, and the amount of data on its efficacy is limited. Here, we evaluated the feasibility, efficacy, and safety of EUS-TTNB in categorizing the types of PCLs and identified the factors associated with diagnostic failure.
Natural history of ampullary adenomas in familial adenomatous polyposis: a long-term follow-up studyAmpullary adenomas (AAs), common in familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), are precursors to ampullary carcinoma. We assessed the natural history of AAs and factors associated with clinically significant progression (CSP).
Safety and efficacy of a novel resection system for direct endoscopic necrosectomy of walled-off pancreas necrosis: a prospective, international, multicenter trialDirect endoscopic necrosectomy (DEN) of walled-off pancreatic necrosis (WOPN) lacks dedicated instruments and requires repetitive and cumbersome procedures. This study evaluated the safety and efficacy of a new powered endoscopic debridement (PED) system designed to simultaneously resect and remove solid debris within WOPN.
Comparative efficacy of different methods for difficult biliary cannulation in ERCP: systematic review and network meta-analysisSeveral methods with variable efficacy have been proposed for difficult biliary cannulation in ERCP. We assessed the comparative efficacy of different strategies for difficult biliary cannulation through a network meta-analysis combining direct and indirect treatment comparisons.
Artificial intelligence for automatic diagnosis of biliary stricture malignancy status in single-operator cholangioscopy: a pilot studyThe diagnosis and characterization of biliary strictures (BSs) is challenging. The introduction of digital single-operator cholangioscopy (DSOC) that allows direct visual inspection of the lesion and targeted biopsy sampling significantly improved the diagnostic yield in patients with indeterminate BSs. However, the diagnostic efficiency of DSOC remains suboptimal. Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have shown great potential for the interpretation of medical images. We aimed to develop a CNN-based system for automatic detection of malignant BSs in DSOC images.
Cost-effectiveness analysis of optimal diagnostic strategy for patients with symptomatic cholelithiasis with intermediate probability for choledocholithiasisEUS, MRCP, and intraoperative cholangiogram (IOC) are the recommended diagnostic modalities for patients with intermediate probability for choledocholithiasis (IPC). The relative cost-effectiveness of these modalities in patients with cholelithiasis and IPC is understudied.
Educational intervention to improve quality of care in Barrett’s esophagus: the AQUIRE randomized controlled trialDespite quality measures in upper endoscopy (EGD) for Barrett’s esophagus (BE), considerable variability remains in practice among gastroenterologists. This randomized controlled trial evaluated the role of structured intensive training on the quality of EGD in BE.
Endoscopic band ligation in the treatment of gastric antral vascular ectasia: a systematic review and meta-analysisGastric antral vascular ectasia (GAVE) is typically treated by endoscopic thermal therapies. Endoscopic band ligation (EBL) has been reported in the treatment of GAVE with encouraging results. However, EBL is not widely used to this end.
Predictors of malignancy in main duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the pancreasThe International Consensus Guidelines updated in 2017 recommended surgery to all main duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (MD-IPMNs) with the main pancreatic duct (MPD) of 10 mm or more and those with mural nodules regardless of size. The aim of the present study was to identify predictors of malignancy in MD-IPMN among preoperative factors including MPD and mural nodule size.
Beyond the SCENIC route: updates in chromoendoscopy and dysplasia screening in patients with inflammatory bowel diseasePatients with Crohn’s disease affecting the colon and ulcerative colitis are known to be at increased risk for the development of dysplasia and colorectal cancer (CRC).1,2 Unlike patients with sporadic CRC, patients with longstanding inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) who develop malignancy do so through different pathophysiologic mechanisms and with foreshortened time frames.3,4 Furthermore, the gross appearance of dysplasia exhibits greater morphologic range in IBD patients, with subtler, flat lesions being commonplace.
Safety and efficacy of a novel electrocautery-enhanced lumen-apposing metal stent in interventional EUS procedures (with video)Electrocautery-tip lumen-apposing metal stents (EC-LAMSs) have extended the indications of therapeutic EUS. We aimed to retrospectively evaluate safety and technical and clinical success of a newly developed EC-LAMS, the Hot-Spaxus (Taewoong Medical Co, Gimpo, Korea), for various EUS-guided procedures.
Classification, outcomes, and management of misdeployed stents during EUS-guided gastroenterostomyStent misdeployment (SM) has hindered the dissemination of EUS-guided gastroenterostomy (EUS-GE) for gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) management. We aimed to provide a classification system for SM during EUS-GE and study clinical outcomes and management accordingly.
Hemodynamic effect through a novel endoscopic intervention in management of varices and hypersplenism (with video)We previously reported a new and combined EUS-guided intervention in a patient with portal hypertension, consisting of obliteration of varices and partial splenic embolization (PSE). Performing PSE is known to diminish the increase in portal venous pressure after endoscopic intervention for varices. The aim of this study was to use multidetector CT portal venography to evaluate the anatomy of esophagogastric varices (EGV) and the impact on hemodynamics of portosystemic collaterals shortly after the concomitant procedures.
Contrast-enhanced EUS for the characterization of mural nodules within pancreatic cystic neoplasms: systematic review and meta-analysisPancreatic cystic neoplasms (PCNs) carry a considerable malignancy risk. Along with main duct dilation, the presence of enhanced mural nodules represents a significant risk factor for malignancy. Several articles assessed the role of contrast-enhanced EUS (CE-EUS) for the identification of malignant features in mural nodules. We evaluate the pooled diagnostic performance of CE-EUS for the identification of high-grade dysplasia or invasive carcinoma among mural nodules in PCNs.
Detection of elusive polyps using a large-scale artificial intelligence system (with videos)Colorectal cancer is a leading cause of death. Colonoscopy is the criterion standard for detection and removal of precancerous lesions and has been shown to reduce mortality. The polyp miss rate during colonoscopies is 22% to 28%. DEEP DEtection of Elusive Polyps (DEEP2) is a new polyp detection system based on deep learning that alerts the operator in real time to the presence and location of polyps. The primary outcome was the performance of DEEP2 on the detection of elusive polyps.
Endoscopic-mediated, biliary hydrodynamic injection mediating clinically relevant levels of gene delivery in pig liverGene therapy could provide curative therapies to many inherited monogenic liver diseases. Clinical trials have largely focused on adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) for liver gene delivery. These vectors, however, are limited by small packaging size, capsid immune responses, and inability to redose. As an alternative, nonviral, hydrodynamic injection through vascular routes can successfully deliver plasmid DNA (pDNA) into mouse liver but has achieved limited success in large animal models.
Single-use duodenoscope for ERCP performed by endoscopists with a range of experience in procedures of variable complexityExpert endoscopists previously reported ERCP outcomes for the first commercialized single-use duodenoscope. We aimed to document usability of this device by endoscopists with different levels of ERCP experience.
Gastric neoplasms in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis: endoscopic and clinicopathologic featuresGastric neoplasms in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) occur at a high rate and can cause death. The endoscopic findings of gastric neoplasms in these patients are characteristic but not well recognized. To identify the relevant characteristics to enable early detection, we retrospectively investigated endoscopic findings of gastric neoplasms in patients with FAP and then compared the clinical, histopathologic, and genetic features among subgroups.
Evaluation of polypectomy quality indicators of large nonpedunculated colorectal polyps in a nonexpert, bowel cancer screening cohortWith the introduction of the national bowel cancer screening program, the detection of sessile and flat colonic lesions ≥20 mm in size, defined as large nonpedunculated colorectal polyps (LNPCPs), has increased. The aim of this study was to examine the quality of endoscopic treatment of LNPCPs in the Dutch screening program.
Endoscopic versus surgical gastrojejunal revision for weight regain in Roux-en-Y gastric bypass patients: 5-year safety and efficacy comparisonAn enlarged gastrojejunal anastomosis (GJA) is associated with weight regain after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and can be corrected with endoscopic or surgical revision; however, there has been no direct comparison between techniques. This study aims to compare serious adverse event (AE) rates and weight loss profiles between endoscopic and surgical revisional techniques over a 5-year period.